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An HlACléiSinti 



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1906 
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SCAttAlt)eACC. 

A BOOK OF PIECES FOR 

RECITATION IN IRISH. 

Containing Selections Suitable for all Ages. 

Taken from the works of the best Modern Irish Writers. 

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curatd sIas Ati eotAis. 
A Folk Story from Coimacht. 

Edited, with Vocabulary embodying Notes, 
By THE REV. JOHN M. O'REILLY, C.C. 

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IRISH PRIMERS. 



Prescribed in the Programme for use in the National Schools. 

ceACCA beA^A gAetiitse 

IRISH READING LESSONS. 

Compiled by Norma Borthwick, with Illustrations by Jack B. Yeats, 

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FIRST IRISH BOOK: 

Containing the Lessons from 

ceaCCA beA^A ^Ae-oa^e, 

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INFANTS' CLASS. 

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180318 



PREFACE 



TO MY READERS. 



My Dear Friends, — I know you want some help to 
acquire a speaking knowledge of our ancestral language. 
You want fluency and accuracy in speaking the words 
which are in constant use by Gaelic speakers. The words 
in this book are just what you want, to begin with. When 
you have exchanged them often enough with your teacher, 
and with each other, you will have acquired the fluency 
and the accuracy you desire. The words are, perhaps, 
few, and small, and simple, but you need not complain of 
that. I have more in store for you, bigger words, harder 
words, and plenty of them ; but it would be useless giving 
them to you until you have thoroughly mastered the 
simpler words. Just let me know when you have done 
that and you shall have another instalment. But bear in 
mind, in fhe meantime, that fluency can be attained only 
by constant practice and repetition. 

fe^p^up pinnDéiU 



CtÁR 









Page. 


Instructions 




( .* 


Lessons 




... 13 


Criticisms 




... 48 


Grammar 




... 52 


Vocabulary 




... 65 


tlA 


téi$inn. 




LéijeAnn. 


t)jii5 An téijinn. 


Ceacc 5fiAiméi|i. 


xMr -oe'n 

§|iAiméAf . 


1 


built C|iOf3Áin. 


Ar\ CACAOIf 


36,3 




Ar\ feAf , An beAn. 


.An c-újilÁfi 


11 


2 


built éA-OAI^. 
T)AUAnnA. 


é, í 


59 




mo, -oo, A. 


mo, *oo, a 


13(a), 13(b) 




So, fom, ú o. 






3 


A\\, fé. CÁ bpuil. 


-dfi An mbófo ; mrA 


8 




1nr. "pém. 


1m' pócA 


86 






péin 


35 


4 


1Tlé, cu. SeATAm. 


1m' feArATn 


86 




Ofm, of c. 


lT>1|t 


8 






Ofm, onx 


87,88 


5 


-A5 *out, a^ ueAcc. 


CÁim 


G9, 81 




Céijnj, CAfi. 


Ó'n -oofiuf 


8 






Co "ocí An mbón-o 


9 


6 


tlC|teACA. 


teif An 5CAitc 


84 




^5 rstiíobA-ó. 


1f 5Aex)il5 é 


15 




'SeA"ó, ní Vi-eA-ó. 


1f béAfitA ; if eA-ó 


20(a) 


7 


Ceifu A^uf fneA^f at> 


A5 cu r ... 


73 




♦ 


£5 cuji nA ceifue 


74 


8 


bAttA beAÚA. 


-An rfúit 


10 




A^Am, A^Am-fA. 


CA-oé fin 


22(a), 24 






1f Ai 5 e ... 


87, 20(a) 



VI. 



téi^eAnn. 


b|ti§ An Léijjmn. 


CeAcc 5|iAiméi|t. 


-Atc -oe'n 
5fiAiméAfi. 


9 


UlTT11|t 10lflAT>. 


An ia-o ... 
An bpvnti-o 

ClA h-lAT) 


17 
18,70 

25(a) 


10 


OfiAmn, A3Ainn. 


CÁmí-o ... 

^ 5 cA r ó 5 A 

-A^Atn-rA, A5Aib-fe 


69 

13(c) 

33,34 


11 


CÁp 3eineAtiinAc. 


bA|t|t An pmn,bAjifi An -oui|tir 
t)A|i]i nA bjtói^e ... 


4,46 
36, 40, 41 


12 


A có^Ainu. 


C03 An teAbAfi ... 
-A3 uó^Ainc An teAbAiji 
Cat> uÁrni a *ó'of5AiLr 
C03 ... ... 


45,72 
23,74 
76 
79,80 


13 


|?AT)<\, 3A1J11T). 


CÁ An pÁipéAjl pA"OA 


15, 49, 50 


14 


tlíOf f 1A, tlíop 3IOJIJIA. 

Cu, é, í. 


tlíor fiA nÁ 

tlíof Aoi|foe nÁcu 


52—57 
65,66 


15 


Óorn f a-oa le. 
iiom, leAU. 


Leif An mbjióiz; ... 
Leir nA "oóijipb ... 
tiom 


84 
36,47,48 

87,88 


10 


gÁ C1IJ1, 5Á CUJ1. 


gÁ cuji, SÁctiji ... 
Cui|i aji An mbófi-o í 


74, 75 
67 


17 


TlA h-tMTTIJteACA. 


-Aon,*oó... 

-A h-Aon, a -oó 

A3 cóniAi|ieAm nA teAbAji ... 


26 

27 
74 


18 


An 'irmó leAtJAfi. 


An 'nróó leAbAji ... 

AzÁ 

Aon ceAnn ArriÁin 

"DÁ teAbAji 

Ceitfie cmn -oe teAbjiAib ... 

An ia"o ; ca-o rÁ ; An ÍeAbAji 


19 

77 

28,6 

29 

30 

17—25 






é fin 
-Aji *ÚoriinAtt 
CÁ fí Ojim 


8S 

60 


19 


-An 'rrmó j?eAfi. 


toeijir, beinx peAji 

(-An 'nróó feAft) 'n Aftn-óe... 


31, 32 

19 



Vll. 



téi^eAnn. 



t)|ii5 An léi^inn. 



CeAcc 5-pAiméi|i. 



Ate -oe'n 



20 


níor mó leAbA-n. 


Aici-pe ... 


33, 34 




ir mó x>e teAbjtAib. 


níop mó leAbAft ... 


19 






Ceitfie leAb.M|\ ) 


30 






Ceitfie cinti x>e leAbjiAib ) 






1p mó 


56 






nÁé 


00 






1f leAbAiji 








1f 1eAbAi|\ iA-o 


22(b), 24 


£1 


kvo 30 téiji. 


A3 *Ocr.h.AlL 


83 




Cujx> -oiob. 


1nbun 


80 




Cm"0 xN^Ainn. 


*Oer nA peAjtAib ... 


55 




mófiÁn, be^Án 


Cú 


00 






fflójtÁn, cuix) mAic 


46 






An flAC 


10 


Ol 


niire, ruf^. 


Cia rÁ A3 cÓ3<\mu 


25 




'SeA-ó; ní h-eAX). 


An nnre > 


17 






An 6 An pe&|i) 






An A3 -oúnAX) > 


20 






An A3Aib-re ) 






A3Aib-re 


34 






An A]i An bpÁipéAjt 


- 


23 


1otj1AT> 3 An A1|iri03Al 


An leAbAji é 


20 




Rii-o éi^in ; Aonnix). 


An bón-o nú -oojuir í 


00 




THnne 615111. 


CAT) UÁ — UÁ CAÚAOIjlACA ... 


23, 24 




LÁn, -pottATTi. 


A3 bUAlA-Ó A11 ÓftlÁlfl 


74 


24 


An f eAji mófi. 


An beAn mójt 


Oi 51 




fld pifi tíiójia. 


An CAitín beA3 ... 


00 




An feAfi ir AOiffoc. 


1r fiA An peAnn nÁ 


55, .',7 






An peAfi if Aoiti-oe 


58 






buACAlltí beA^A ... 


51 






pi|i mójiA 


5 V 7>) 



SHORT INSTRUCTIONS 

ON 

METHOD OF TEACHING. 



-♦♦- 



The Direct Method, on which the following lessons are 
based, is an imitation of the method by which children 
are taught their maternal language ; in other words, its 
object is to teach an unknown language through the 
medium of that language itself, without any attempt at 
translation from or into another language. The success- 
ful teaching of language by the Direct Method, however, 
implies considerable skill and training on the part of the 
teacher. The following lessons are specially drawn up to 
meet the case of those to whom Irish is a new language ; 
and they are so arranged that, in the hands of a fairly 
skilled teacher, they can be taught without the aid of 
one word from another language. 

It is of the greatest importance that the pupils should, 
from the very beginning, express their ideas in the lan- 
guage they are learning. As, however, comparatively few 
Gaelic teachers have any practical experience of the 
Direct Method, teachers are recommended to follow care- 
fully the subjoined Instructions. The rigid observance 
of these Instructions forms an important part of the work 
of the Mun^ter Training College, and, presumably, of the 
Connacht Training College also. They are, however, to 
be regarded rather as general directions than as a complete 
set of instructions, or as answering the purpose of a course 
of training. 

The attention of teachers is also directed to the criti- 
cisms at the end of the text. 



IO 

1. The teacher should make himself perfectly familiar 
with all the words and phrases of the lesson before class 
time. 

2. He should remember all the words and phrases 
already learned by the pupils in the preceding lessons. 
He can thus use the words with which the pupils are 
already familiar in connection with, or in explanation of, 
the words newly introduced. 

3. The teacher should ask his questions in a clear, dis- 
tinct tone; and, instead of repeating the question, 
encourage the pupil to make the best effort possible, 
helping him as often as necessary with the answer. 

4. Mistakes, in pronunciation or otherwise, should be 
corrected instantly, without w T aiting until the phrase or 
sentence is completed. But the teacher should not repeat 
the mispronounced or incorrect word. Mistakes, when 
repeated, or suffered to run on for a time, often become 
a habit of speech which it is difficult to overcome. 

5. He should use gestures freely, as well to elucidate 
his question, as to help the pupil in answering. Illus- 
trations on a blackboard, and pictures, should also be 
availed of as often as occasion permits. 

6. The pupils should be able to answer questions on 
each lesson before they read it. Even then the teacher 
should read the lesson before the pupil makes his attempt. 
Phonetic drill should receive particular attention in the 
earlier lessons. 

7. Reading and writing should begin only when the 
pupils are able to pronounce accurately all the other 
words in the earlier lessons of the series, and to answer 
the questions- intelligently. 

8. Pupils to whom the language is new will take some 
considerable time to learn the full phonetic values of 
letters and combinations of letters in the printed words. 
They will almost invariably pronounce new words accord- 
ing to the phonetic standards that obtain in their mother 
tongue. Until the pupils are able to read off a piece at 
sight the home exercises should contain no new words, 



II 

but consist of revision, and exercises on the lessons al- 
ready learned. 

9. Fluency and accuracy of expression being the chief 
objects to be attained, the questions should be varied as 
much as possible, care being taken, however, that the 
exercise is not made too difficult. By this means the 
teacher can avoid excessive repetition, which tends to 
make the lesson tedious. 

10. It is desirable that the teacher should be a fluent 
speaker and practised writer of Irish. Yet the trained 
teacher, who makes his subject interesting and suggestive, 
will do better work with a limited knowledge of Irish 
than the unskilled teacher, however profound his know- 
ledge of the language. 

11. If the teacher be not a native speaker he should 
spare no pains to acquire the correct pronunciation of the 
language before he undertakes to teach it to others. 
Every teacher should, if possible, have some training in 
phonetics ; it is most important that he should be able 
to tell the pupils in what respect their pronunciation may 
be faulty, and how the correct sound is produced. 

12. A language lesson given by a teacher who remains 
in his seat throughout the lesson is usually a dull one. 
Languor unfits a teacher for his work; but fuss and 
irritability are inexcusable. 

13. Chorus work judiciously practised is commendable, 
especially for large classes; but only when the teacher is 
certain that all the pupils have the true pronunciation. 

14. Any reading book may be used for the purposes of 
oral teaching as outlined in this little book, but it is a 
mistake to use a text book which is too difficult. Few of 
our availaljle reading books, however, lend themselves to 
oral work on the lines laid down, while some are faulty 
in idiom. The teacher should be particularly careful to 
place no reading book in the pupil's hands except those in 
which the idiom is above question. 

15. It is eminently desirable that the teacher should 
always speak in his natural tone; and, consistently with 



12 

accuracy of speech, in his native dialect. The learners 
should be kept in close touch with local dialects, and each 
of the three great Irish speaking divisions of Ireland 
should, as far as practicable, supply its own staff of Irish 
teachers. 

16. The words and phrases in the text are, speaking 
generally, common to all parts of Ireland, though the 
pronunciation varies somewhat according to locality. 
However, the teacher may always use variants at his 
discretion where the phraseology in the text is not in 
accordance with the local dialect. 

17. Grammar arising from the text is briefly explained 
for the students' perusal; but it is not intended that any 
portion of the class time should be given up to these 
grammar lessons in English. Actual conversation during 
class time gives by far the best results; grammar is best 
learnt by its application in practice. 



*3 



teijeAnn a ti-Aon. 
I. 

An leAbAf . Ati óaiIc. 

An peAnn. An fiAgAit. 

An pÁipéAf. An óACAOif. 

An peAnn LuAi*óe. An fuinneog. 

An bOfgA; An bójvo ; ah z-ú\\lÁ\\; An plU ; aii *ootuif. 

CA*oé fin ? 'Sé fin An leAbAf, an peAnn, An pÁipéAft. 

Cat)í fin ? 'Sí fin ^n óAtAOif , An óaiLc, An fiAgAil. 

An é fin An leAbAf ? 'Sé fin An teAbAf . 

An í fin -An f uinneog ? 'Sí fin ah fuinneog. 

An é fin An pectin lUAit)e ? Hi h-é fin -An peAnn luAi*óe, 
'fé fin An bof^A. 

An í pn -An óaiLc ? Hi ti-i pn An caiIc, 'f i fin -An fiAgAil. 

II. 

An fe-Af . An be-An. An c-Ailin. 

Cia ti-é fin ? 'Sé fin -An fe-Af. 

Ci-A ti-i fin ? 'Si fin An bean, An CAitin. 

An é pn An f eAf ? 'Sé fin An feAf. 'Sé. 

An i fin An beAn nú An CAitin ? 'Sí pn An CAitin. 

'Sé = 1f é. 1fé. 'Sí=1f í. 1fí. 

5fAiméAf. — An peAnn, An óACAoif. An c-ú|\lÁ|\. 

For paragraph of Grammar see Index 

The names of three objects only to be given at a time, keeping masculine 
and feminine nouns in distinct groups. 

The teacher should, at first, answer the questions himself, while showing 
the object, so as to obviate the necessity of translation. 



14 

téigeAtin a T)ó. 
I. 

An óAfój;. An bpípce. An Iiaca. 

An bepc. An bónA. An cIóca. 

An bpó^. An CApAbAC. An súnA. 

An ciAppúip. An nucin. An pcocA. 

CA"oé fin ? ? Sé pin An boiiA, An cIóca, An 5Ú11A. 
An í pn An CApo^ nú An bepc? Hi h-i pin An CApo^ nÁ 
An bepc, 'pi fin An bpóg, -jpt. 

II. 

T)ub, bÁn, *oe<.\ps, 50pm, bmt)e, tuutne, puAt), £t^p. 

UÁ An bónA bÁn, cÁ An bpój; *oub, CÁ An teAbAp 50pm. 

An bptnt An CApós mib ? UÁ An CApo^ *oiib. CÁ pi *oub. 
An bpvnt An bótiA -oub ? tlít (ní bptnt) An bónA *oub, cá 
pé ban. An bpml An caúaoija bui*óe ? UÁ pi buróe. €á. 
tlíL pí bm*óe. ílíl. Hit An caiIc "cub, ac cá pí bAti. 

III. 
mo. T)o. A. 

UÁ mo óAfóg *oub. UÁ T)o CAfó5 glAf. An bpml *oo 
óapóg 5l^r ? ^Á ino CAfós 5W. An bpml nio bónA 
T)ub ? ttíl -oo bónA *oub, cá T)0 bónA bÁn. 

'Sé pm An peA|A. UÁ a X)ónA bÁn, cÁ a CApAbAC bÁn Agup 
50pm, cÁ a bfió^ *oub. 

'Si pin An beAii. UÁ a bónA bÁn, cÁ a ca^adac UAicne, 

CÁ A bjlóg pUAt), CÁ A CtÓCA T>eAp5. 

IV. 
So. Som. "Úx). 
cá An teAbAjA po *oeAp5 ; cÁ An leAbAp pom xmb ; cÁ aii 
teAbAp ú"o bui'óe- 

5pAitnéAn. — 6, í. ÍDo, *oo, a. 

The objects should be introduced as in Lesson I., and the questions varied 
and repeated until the pupils are perfectly familiar with the gender of each 
noun. 



15 

téigeúrm a crí 
I. 

Ap. 1fé. Cat) cá. 

Cá *\n teAbAfi Ap aii mbófiT). UÁ An pÁipéAfi pé'n (pé aii) 
tnbóp-o. UÁ ^n peAnn aja Ati 5CACAOip. UÁ aii bop^A pé'n 
SCACAOip. 

Ca*o cÁ j?é'n scAtAOip ? Uá An bop^A pé'n scACAOip. 

Ca-o cá a\\ An iiibóp"o, aja An gCACAOip, A|\ ah leAbAp, jré'n 
leAbAp, pé'n mbójvo, pé'n bpÁipéAp ? 

II. 

Cá bptnt. 1n. 1np Ati (inpA). 

Cá bptnl ah leAbAp? UÁ aii leAbAp *s\\ An mbófvo. 

CÁ bpuil aii peAnn, aii pÁipéAp, aii bopsA ? 

Uá An caiIc inpA bopgA (== inp An tnbopgA). UÁ ati 
peAnn lUAfóe mp An leAbAp. 

III. 

Uá ino ciAppúip im' póCA (= in tno pócA). 

Cad cá im' póCA? Uá "OO CIAppÚip IT)' pócA ( = in *oo 
Póca). 

An bpml mo óiAppúip it)' póCA? Tlíl *oo ciAppúip im' 
póCA, cá *oo ciAppmp id' póCA pém. 

Cá bpmt *oo óiAppúip, mo ciAppúip, *oo teAbAp ? 

An bp»U -oo peAnn luAit>e rni' leAbAp? Híl mo peAnn 
tuAiúe to' leAbAp, cÁ mo peAim UiAi*óe im' teAbAp péin. 

Cat) cá 1-d' teAbAp ? Uá mo peAnn tuAi*óe féin mV 

tGAbAp. 

5pAiméAp. — Ap An mbópx) ; mpA bop^A. 1m' póCA. 
péitu 



i6 

teigeArm a ceAtAm. 
I. 

tné. Uú. Sé. Si. SeApAtri. Suix>e. 

UÁim, rÁ tné. Uaoi, cÁ cú. tlílim, nit mé. tlílip, nil cú. 

UÁim im' peApAtfi. Uaoi 1*0' puiT)e. An bpuitnn nn' 
feApAiri ? An bpuitim im' ftnt>e? An tipuil aii pe^p 'n a 
feApArii ? An ttptnt ^n CAitín 'n a peApAtíi nú 'n a puií)e? 
An bpuit An tieAn 'n a pui*óe? 

1t)ifi. 

CÁ bpuiUm inV f e^fAMti ? Uaoi itd' feApArh it)ip ah bójvc 
A^up An óAÚAOifA. An £>pmli|\ 1*0' peApArii Af\ ah scacaoij; 
foifi aii pcót ^Stif ^n jmILa ? ílílim im' peApAtíi, "jpl, aó 
tÁim iiyi* fui"óe aj\ Ati pcól it)1|a aii bójvo Agup An "oopup. 
Hítif\ 1T)' peApAtii. tlíl An peA|\ 'n a pui'úe, cA fé 'n a 
feApArii. UÁ x\n tie^n 'n a pui'óe. Úá An CAilín 'n a 
f eApArh. An tipuil An tteAn 'n a p e^f Am ? THl. 

II. 

Opm. Opc. Aifi. tlipci. íttnAOi. 

UÁ tno Iiaca Oj\m. Hit *oo íiaca ope. An tipuil -oo 
óAfó^ opc? UÁ mo óapóg opm. An bptnt mo £>epc opc? 
T1íl *oo tiepc ofim, aó cá tno ftepc péin of\m. 

An peap — Uá a íiaca Aip, cá a £>ónA Aip, ^gup * 6-ApAÚ-AC, 
Asup a ÓAP05. 

An tteAn — UÁ a dóiia uiptl, A^uf a ca^aoac, A^up -<? 

ClÓCA. 

UÁ a 6^pó5 Ap ah ftpeAjA. CÁ a cIóca a^ An mnaoi. 
5í^AiméArv. — W feApArh ; 1*0' peApAtri. 1x>ipv. Otwi, opc 



17 

leijjeAnn a CU15. 
I. 

A5 "out. A5 ceAóc. Ó. go "ocí. 

UÁim A5 *oul 50 -ocí An "oopup. UÁim a$ ceAóc 50 *ocí 
-An mbófvo. CÁmi A5 mil ó'n tnbópx) 50 T)cí x\n scAúAoip. 

An optnlim A5 -out ó'n rnbóp-o 50 *ocí An "oopup? ^Sn 
bpml pé A5 ce^óc ó'n T)opup 50 "ocí aii gCACAOip ? ttíl pé 
A5 ceAóc, -]pt. 



A5 pAnAtfiAinc. A5. 
Oim A5 "oul 50 "ocí An scACAOip. UÁitn a$ pAnAtriAinc 

^5 ^ n SCACAOlp. 

An £>puitim A5 pAnArhAinc A5 An "oceme ? tlítip A5 
VAtiAniAinr:, -jpl., caoi a^ -out ó'n scACAOip 50 -ocí An -oopup. 



II. 
Céipig. UAp. \?<sn. 
Céifig 50 T)cí An "oopup. Uá pé A5 -out 50 t>cí An 

T)Opup. 

|?An A^An -oopup. Cá bpuit pé A5 pAnAtfiAmc? 

UAp 50 -ocí An mbóp-o. An bpmt pé A5 "out 50 *ocí An 
^CACAOip ? 11ít, cá pé A5 ceAóc, "jpt. 

<5p<MméAp. — UÁim. Ó'n -oopup. 5° *° cí An mbopt). 



i8 

téigeAtitt a se. 
I. 

^5 f5FíobA*ó. sm. ^eo. ^ite. 

UÁitri A5 f5fiob<vo A|\ An sctÁf Twb. Sin ticif, A. Seo 
ticip eite, b. Seo Ucif eile, C. 

Cat>í aii licijt í fin ? Sin! t). Cat)í An ti~i|\ í feo? C. 

P0CAt. 5Ae"Ólt5. t)éAj\tA. 

Seo focAt, "fcoivo." Seo focAt eite, "*oofUip." Seo 
focAt t)éAflA, "pen." Seo focAt 5 Ae ^^5^> "peAiin." 

An Aibgicif — A, t), C, T), e, f, 5, tl, 1, t, m, tl, O, 
p, tl, S, U, tl. f S\ fin Aibgicip ha 5 de>ó,l 5 e ' 

Le. teif An. 

UÁim A5 f5fíobA*ó teif An 5CA1IC. 

Sgfí'ig Ap *oo pÁipéAf te*o' (le *oo) jbeAnn. An bftntin 
A5 fspiobAT) Af An 5ClÁ|\ teif An 5CA1IC ? ílílim A5 
fgfíobAt), -jft., aó cÁim as fgfíobAf), "jft., tem' (le mo) 
peAtin. 

II. 

'SeA-ó. tlí íi-eA-ó. tlÁ-ó. 

An t)éAftA An focAl fo, " table" ? 1f t)éAftA. 1f eAt>. 
'SeA-ó. 

An t)éAftA An focAt fo, " bófo " ? tlí íi-eA"ó, aó 
5Aet)il5 (5Ae"óttiinn). 

An licif é f eo, " ceine " ? 11? h-eAT), aó f ocaI. 

Seo fÁ*ó, " Uá An bójro fa<vó." S^fí'ig \\ÁX) eite Af An 
gclÁf. An 5^ e *ó^5 ^ n l^ fom, tiú t)éAf t<\ ? gAetnts 
1f 5Ae*óit5 é. 

5f Aimédf .— teif ^n ^cditc. 1f 5^^*6115 é. 1f t)éAftA ; 
ifeA"ó. 



19 



téijeAtin a seACu. 

An Ceipc. An PfeAs^^t). 

a$ cup. a$ ppeA^Aipc. 

"An bptnl An leAbAp a$ac ?" Sin ceipc. "UÁ ah teAbAp 
A^Ain." Sm ppeAspAt). UÁim a$ cup ceipce ope — " CÁ 
bpuit An bop^A?'' ppe-agAip An óeipc. <( UÁ An bop^A a\\ 
Anmbóp-o." Cinp ceipe a\\ An 5CA1U11. Cia cá A5 cup nA 
ceipce ? Cia cá a$ ppeAgAipc nA ceipce? 



CeipceAnnA. 

1. An bpmt An ÓAP05 bÁn ? 

2. An bpuil An leAbAp pé'n 

inbópt)? 

3. Cá Dpuil An óaiIc? 



4. An bptnlip 1*0' peApAtri a\\ 
An pcót iDip An bójvo 
Agup An pumneog ? 



Í1íl An ÓAP05 bÁn, cá An 

CApÓ5 T)Ub. 

flit An teAbAp pé'n 
mbófvo, cá pé Ap An 
mbó|VD. 

UÁ An óaiIc mpA bopgA, 
A^up cÁ An bop5A Ap All 
úplÁp. 

Hílim im' peApArh a\k aii 
pcót i*oip An bópT) A^up 
An fuinneog ; cÁim im' 

fUlt)e Ap An gCACAOIp 
1T)ip All bópt) A£Up All 

ceine. 



^peA^Aip iiA ceipceAnnA po A$up pspí'ig nA ppeA^pAí it) 1 
leAbAp. 



1. An bpuil An óAtAOip 

50pm? 

2. Cá bptnt -oo óApóg? 

3. An bptnt mo óApAbAc bÁn? 

4. Cá t>puit leAbAp An 

óAitín ? 

5. An bpuil An CAitín 'n a 

peApAtri ? 



6. An bpuilim A5 T)ul 50 

*ocí An -ooptip ? 

7. Cá bpuilip i-o ' pui-óe ? 

8. Cá bpml do ciAppmp? 

9. Cá bpuil tno ciAppúip ? 

10. Att DpUll A hACA A^lip A 

CtÓCA Ap All mnAOi ? 

1 1. An tJéAplA é peo ? 



gpAiméAp. — A5 cup. A5 cup nA ceipce. 



20 

téigeAtm a ti-oCu. 
I. 

An ceAnn. An ctuAp. An tÁm. 

An béAl. An Cfútt. An cop. 

An mtnneÁt. An cppón. An rhéAp. 

An guAtA. An glum. 

9 

CAT)é fin ? 'Sé fin An ceAnn, An béAt, An rnuineÁt. 

Cat)í fin ? 'Si ftn An ctuAf, An cpuit, An cffón, "j|\l. 

An í fin An lÁtri nú An óof ? 'Si fin An cop. An i fin 
An rhéA|\ nú An glúin ? tli ti-i fin An rhéAp nÁ An gtúm, ipí 
fin An guAtA. An é fin t>o ceAnn? tlí ti-é fin mo óeAnn, 
ifé fin *oo óeAnn fém. An i fin *oo ctuAf ? 1pí. 'Si. 

II. 

AgAm. AgAC Aige. Aici. 

UÁ An VeAOA|\ AgAm. UÁ ah pÁipéAfi a^ac. Cat) cá 
A^Atn ? Uá An leAbA|\ a^ac. Cat) cá Ag An bpeAj\ ? UÁ 
An bopgA Aige. An bptnl An bopgA Ag An mnAOi ? flit An 
bof5A aici, ac ca An CAilc aici. 

III. 

AgAtTI-fA. AgAC-fA. 

Hit An teAbAfi AgAm. UÁ An teAbAt\ AgAC-fA. Cat) cá 

AgAtn-f a ? UÁ An pÁipéA|\ AgAC-f a. An bptnl An peAnn 

Ag An gCAiUn ? Hit An peAnn aici, ac cá An bopgA aici. 

Uá aji peAnn AgAtn-p a. Cá bpml aii óaiIc ? UÁ pi AgAC-pA. 

An bpuit An fiAgAit Ag An bpeA|\ ? Hit An jUAgAit Aige, 

ac ca ah peAnn luAi"óe Aige. 

a j - u. -> ítlí ti-Aige. 

An Aijce xa An *oub r -fl ° 

(a) 5l^ lméxN 1 u — ^ n cpúit. CAT)é pm. 1p Aige. 



21 

'b) CeipceAnnA. 

i. Cat> cá inpA bor^A? 

2. CÁ frpuil An bor^A ? 

3. Ca*o uá aja Ati mbófvo ? 

4. An bpml Ati pÁipéA|\ pé'n scAÚAOip? 

5. An bjrtnl mo leAbAU a$ac ? 

6. An bjrinl *oo leAbAp A5 <\n 5CA1U11 ? 

7. An OpUlt Atl CAllC A^AC-fA ? 

8. Cia cá 'n a r ui"óe Afi An rcól ? 

9. CÁ bpuiUm im' f eArAtn ? 

10. An bpint T)o óAfóg bmt)e nú bv\n ? 

11. An a^ An s$CAilín acá mo teAbAp? 

12. An A^m-rA cá An boiT)éAl ? 

(c) Cuin An c-Ainao5At noirh n^ pocAil peo : — 

(Put the article. An, before the following nouns) : — 
1£eA]\, pwnneos, pÁipéAn, beAn, bop^A, ceAim, cop, méAp, 
riiil, rpón, CAró$, CAiUn, bófno, bpó^. (An peAtt, -Ati 
puinneos, -jpt.) 



téijeAtin a tiAOL 
I. 

tlirhip ua£a. Uirhip iotpA*ó. 

An teAbAp. t\& leAbAip. 

An peAtin. 11a pmn. 

An bón-o. 11a binp-o. 

An "oopup. Ha -ooippe. 

An bop£A. 11 a bop^Ai. 

An "pe.\p- H* F 1 P- 

An be An. Ha mn,\. 

An CAiUn. 11 a CAilíní. 

An pinnneo^. 11a puinneo^A. 

An CACAOip. 1lA QAtAOíflAéA. 

Ca*o iat) pom ? ? Suvo pom (tptA*o pom) tu\ leAbAip, nA 
pinn, ifit. An iat> pom tu\ pÁipéip ? VH n-tAT) pom m 



22 

p-áipéip, 'p^" foin nA pnnneosA. An iat) po tiA bopgAí nú 
n-A búifvo ? ttí íi-iat) foin nA bopsAí nÁ nA búijvo, 'p^* 
foin tiA caúaoipaóa. CÁ bpnt nA caúaoipaóa ? Úáit) pA*o 
(cá pA*o) Ap An úplÁp. 

Cat) iat> poin ? 'Siat* f oin nA bpósA, nA ca^o^a, nA 
bónAí, "]pt. An bptnt n^ bónAÍ 50pm ? í1íti*o piAT> (nil 
piA-o) 50pm, cái*o piAt) bÁn. An bptnl mo bpógA *oub? 
Uái*o piA*o "oub. Cái*o. An bpuitiT) piA*o T>eAp5 ? tlíli'o. 

II. 

ClA tl-1AT). SÚT). SlÚT). 

Cia ti-iAT> pom ? Siat) poin n^ pp, n-A mnÁ, v\a CAitíní. 
An iat> f o r\A CAiUní ? tlí ti-iA*o ; 'p 1 ^* f oln n ^ VW' ^ n 
iat> f út) nA mnÁ ? 1piA*o. 'Siat). An í piú"o An CAilín ? 
1pí. Cia ti-é put)? 

(a) 5r Airné ^r« — ^ n }A> °' ^ n Bpuilro. Cia b-i-AT). 

(b) Ctnp f ^n turnip iotpA"ó nA pÁi*óce f eo : — 

1. UÁ-Ati bófvo A^up ^n óAtAOip A^jup An bop^A A^up An 

fCÓl A|\ An ÚptÁp. 

2. tlít fHO fCOCA T)Ub, AÓ CÁ fé pUA*Ó, A£Up CÁ mO bpÓ^ 

btn-óe. 

3. Uá An peAp Aguf An beAn Agup An CAitín A5 pspíobA-ó. 

4. UÁ CAfÓ^ A^Uf tlACA AgUp bÓnA Aglip CA|\AbAC A^Am 

mf A bOfgA. 

5. An é fítiT) An peA|\? tlí h-é. 

6. An í peo An X>eAr\ ? Iff. 

7. An bpuil p A5 *oul 50 -ocí An gcAtAOip? 

8. Cá bptnt An "oopup, An ptnnneos, An peAtun U»ai óe, atí 

t?AltA, An tlCip, An pOCAt? 

9. An í pn *oo ótuAf, t>o fóil, *oo §uaIa ? 

10. 'Sí peo An lÁrh, An óop, An rhéAp, Ati gtútn. 

11. An ceAnn, An béAl, An mtnneÁl, au piAgAil, au T)Of\uf. 

(c) Cuif\ An c-Ai|ici05At poirh nA pocAit feo : — 

t)ó|\-o, cacaoi|\, úf\tÁf\, peAnn, -oopup, leAbAp, bepc, caiIc, 
CAilín, cIóca, bónA, 5«nA, cluAf, pócA. 



23 

téigeArm a T)eió. 
I. 

Áp. ttofi A. 

Omit). Ocaoi. 

Uiim im' fe^f^m. Uaoi 1*0' fe^f^m. CÁmít) mÁfi (in 

-AnjreAr^m. ■<_. - „ ' ..^ An bpuilimit) in^n 

fe>Af^rh ? CÁtAoi mbup f e*\f atfi. &n bpm limit) m^p f uróe ? 
Híl fió inbup fui*óe. An bpinl íia cailíní m a f e<\fArh ? 
tlílit) puvo 'n a fe^f^m, cÁit) fi^vo 'n a fui"óe. CÁ bpuil 
fi^t) 'n a fui-óe? UÁit) fia*o 'n a fui*óe ^p an fcól i*oifi an 
bójvo A^uf an f All^. An bp ml fib mbup fe-AfArh ? 
tlílimit) mip fe^f<\m, cÁmít) inÁp f int)e. 

1n^p = in Sp. 
1nt)U|A=in bujt. 

O mo ó^fó^ "oub. CÁ t)o ó^fó^ tnib. O Áp sc^fó^A 
•out). An bpuil bup tnbónAí *oub ? tlít Á\\ mbómu* tiiiB, 
cái-o fiAt) bÁn. Híl a mbonai -oub, zá a mbón^í bÁn. Cá 
a mbpó^A "oub. 

II. 

OfAinn. OfAib. 0\\tA. 
* 
O mo ó"Afó5 ofm. UÁ *oo ó^fój; opc. U-Á -Áfv gc^fó^A 
opamn. tlíl Á\\ tiACAi Ofi&inn. Cá bup mbfó^A ojuMb. An 
bptnl Á\\ mbón*\í opamn ? UÁ bup mbón^í of^ib. CÁ bpuil 
n-A CAiUní ? An Dpuil a sclóc^í opc<\ ? tlíl ^ ^cIóc-aí 
opta, -aó cá a nsúnaí opt^\, Aguf cÁ ^ tnbp ó$a opca. 



24 

III. 

As^mn. AjjAib. Acu. A^Aitm-ne, i|\l. 

Umo teAbAp A^Am-pA A^tif cá *oo teAbAfi A$Au-fA. UÁ 
Áf\ leAbAip -Ag^ nn. An bptnt Á\\ teAbAif\ A$Ainn ? UÁ bu|\ 
leAbAip A^Aib. UÁ r\A CAilini ; n a y uií>e A^up nil a 
teAbAip acu, ac cá a bpmn acu. An bpuit a bpÁipéif\ acu ? 
Uait>, A^uf cáit) fiAT) a$ fgpíob'. An bpmt Á\\ bpÁipéijv 
AgAtnn-ne ? Hit bufi bpÁtpéin AgAib-pe, ac cá bup 
leAbAip A$Aib. 

(a) 5P^ lrnéA r- — UÁmí*o. Áfi ^CApo^A. A^Am-fA, 

A^Aib-fe. 

(b) Ctnf f An iot|AA"ó : — 

1. UÁ An CAitin 'n a pui*oe, A$up cá a íiaca utpti. 

2. Ua aii peA|A 'n a feApArh, Agup cá a óApós aij\. 

3. UÁim rni' feAfArh, A^up cÁ mo CApóg opm. 

4. Uaoi it)' f wóe, ^$up cá t>o bónA Agup *oo óAj\AbAc ope. 

5. CÁ bptnlim im' fui-óe? 

6. Hit fi 'n a feAfArh. 

7. An bjruitip 1*0' ftnoe? 

8. Uá fé J n a fufóe, Agup ca a teAbAp Ai^e. 

9. Hit mo teAbA|\ AjjAm, ac cá mo pÁipéAf\ A^Am. 

10. UÁ *oo peAnn a^ac-pa, A^up caoi it/ fume. 

1 1. UÁ a bpó^A uifiCi, Aguf ca a pÁipéAfi aici. 

(c) Cuij\ u Áfi" f 01m nA -pocAit feo : — 

T)ótppe, pínn, 5Ú11AÍ, cluAfA, póCAí, ctóCAí, bónAí, befc- 
eAiinA, CAf 05A, bfiogA, fúile, puinneo^A. 

(t>) S^pi'ig AmAó létgeAnn a h-Aon. 

(Copy Exercise I.) 



25 



'Sí 


fin 


mo cop. 


Cat)í 


fin ? 




'Si 


fin 


COf An bÚ1fO. 


'Sí pii 


1 COf 


nA mnÁ. 


»1 




„ At! pip. 


M 


j» 


nA CACAOIfAC, 


') 




,, An pmn. 


'Sé fin bun 


nA -p umneoi^e. 


'Sé 


pin 


bApp An pmn. 


M 


bApp 


nA fumneoi^e. 


j) 




,, All *ouipip. 


>J 


>> 


nA bpoige. 


)i 




bun ah *ouipip. 


n 


» 


nA CAilce. 


>> 




,, An f aIU\. 


j» 


M 


11A piAjtAC. 


>> 




,, An bopcA. 


>> 


)) 


11A ctuAipe. 


j) 




b^pf An pmn ltu\it)e. 


>y 


>J 


nA ppoiiv\. 


>i 




„ An cLóca. 


ÍJ 


M 


ha CApói^e. 


>> 




,, An gunA. 


£ 


»> 


nA beipce. 


>> 


ctóCA ah 00.1 Un 


)' 


ClÓCA 


ns mni. 



t)App nA tnéipe, n<\ lÁime, nA coipe. 

An é fin bApp ah xunpip? tlí n-é. 'Sé pin bun nA 
f umneoige. An í pm cop Art pmn mi cop m\ cacaoipac ? 
An é pin bun nA cliiAipe nú bApp nA ppóiiA? An é fin íiaca 
An fip nú ctóCA ha mnÁ? 

Uá bv\pf mo pmn a\\ ah bpÁipéAp. CÁ copA An p\\ fé'n 

SCACAOip. 

(a) 5pAiméAp. — t)Apf An pmn ; bApp An *ouipif. t>A|^\ 

ha bpói5e. 

(b) S^pi'ig 5 f Ámce mAf é p eo : — 

(Write 5 sentences like the following) : — ■ 

UÁ cof Ail pmn -oeAp^. 
Sgf fig 5 (varoce mAf é f eo : — 

Cá bApp ha CAilce f é n teAbAp. 

( c ) S^pi'ig attiac io tine *oe téigeAim a Do. 

"(Copy 10 lines of Exercise 2.) 

(■o) Sspibmn ó pÁt) béH (Dictation) — io fÁi*óce. 



26 

téigeAnn a T)ót)éA5. 
I. 

A5 cógAinc- A5 CU F- 

A to^Ainc. A óup. 

UÁim a$ cógAinc An teAfcAtp. CÁim a$ cup An teAbAip 
-Ap ^n mbófvo. 

Uóg An peAnn. 

Uaoi a^ co^Ainc An pinn. 

Cuip An peAnn a|a An mbó^T). 

Uaoi as cup An pinn Ap An mbóp*o. 
Cv\im caoi, cá pé, as cósAinc An pÁipéip. 

Cat) cÁim a to^Ainc? Oim Ag cógAitic An bop^A. 

Cat) cá fí a tógAinc? <CÁ pí a$ co^aihc Ati pinn tuAi*óe # 

CAT) CAOI A ÓUp A^ AM gCAUAOip ? UÁ11T1 Ag CUp Atl ÓÁpCA 
Ap Atl gCACAOip. 

II. 

A5 orsAitc. A5 *oúnA*ó. 

A , ó , op5Ailc. A 'óúnA'ó. 

Oim A^ of^Ailc An teAbAip. OpgAil An teAbAp. Caoi 
A£ Of^AltC An LeAbAip. 

CÁim A5 "oúnAt) An leAbAip. *Oún An leAbAp. 

CAT) CÁim A -ó'ofSAllC? UAOI Ag OpgAllC Atl leAÓAip. 

Cat) cá pé a "ounAt) ? Uá pé a$ *oúnAí) An LeAbAip. 

A "óéAnArii. 

UÁim A5 có^Ainc An teAt)Aip. Cat) cÁnn a "óéAnAtfi ? 
Caoi A5 co^Ainc An teAftAifi. Cuip An bop^A Ap An úptÁp. 
Ca*o cá pé a *óéAnAtri ? CÁ pé A5 cup An bop^A Ap ah 
úplÁp. Cat) cÁim a *ó'of5Ailc? Uaoi Ag op^ilc nA 
pumneoise, nA cApoige. Uaoi a$ cógAinc n^ CAitce, tn\ 

piAglAÓ, nA CACAOIpAC. 



27 

(a) "SpAiméAp. — ró^ An leAbAp. A5 co^Ainc ^n leAbAip. 

Cad cÁim a *ó'of5^itc. U05. 

( b ) s 5r i '' 1 § IO P^i-óce tnAp é peo : — 

M U05 ^n bop^A ; cá pé Ag co^Ainc ^n bop^A ; cat) cá pé 
Ato^Ainc?'' A^up CAbAip ipceAó ha pocAil peo (using the 
following words) : — C05, cmp, OfgAit, -oún ; Agup ha pocAil 
peo : — t)pó5, cApó^, *oo|\up, cacaoi^, peAiin, íiaca, bóiiA, 
ptnnneog, leAbAp, CAp^b^c. 

( c ) Sgpíbinn ó pÁti béil — 10 pÁi"óce ^p téigeAnn a tlaoi 

(from Exercise 9). 



léigeAnn a utifoeAS. 



£AT>A. 


5«Mpi"0. 


LeAtAfi. 


CUlflAflj;. 


ITIófi. 


UeA 5 . 


ApT). 


IpeAl. 



UÁ ati pÁipéAp jwoa. UÁ Ati pe^nn UiAi*óe 5Aipi*o. Uá 
An |iia£aiI pAT)A. tlít An óAilc patk\, cÁ p> 5*M|MT). An 
bptnl An pÁipéA|A pAD^ ? An bpml An pe^nn Uu\i"óe pvoa? 
An bpuit An piAgAil 5Ai|\iT) ? 

Uá aii bóp*o teAt^n. UÁ An pÁipéAp curhAn^. An bpuil 
An bópt> cuttiAns ? An bpuil Ati c-ú|\LÁp leAtAn ? An 
bpuil An bop^A leAtAn ? 

Uá An c-vptÁf pAT)A A^up leAtAti ; cá An c-úplÁn tnóp. 
Uá aii cÁpcA beA$. An bpuil ^sn bopgA mop? An bpinl 
An bóp-o móp ? 

In teaching this lesson the quality ascribed to each object should be such 
as to impress the pupil at first sight. Thus an object described as f a-oa 
should have ifrs length out of all proportion to its other dimensions. An 
object described as beA$ should appear very small by contrast with another 
object. 



28 

Ua ah j:AttA ájvo. UÁ An bop^A ípeAl. An bptnL >c\n 
pcót Án"o ? An bptnt -án puinneo^ ípeAt? 

TtArhAp. CaoI. 

UéASAptA UAnAfóe. 

UÁ cop -An Dtíijvo i\ArhAp. UÁ cop An pinn caoI. Uá aii 
leAbAfi céASAjvtA. U<\ An pÁipéAp zAnAwe. 

(<\) JnAiméAp. — ^ Á An pÁipéAji pat>a, 

(b) Cuifi pAti lotjM'ó r\A ceipceAtina Agup tu ppeAsjiAí acá 
inpA leige<\nn po. UÁ nA páipéip pAT)A, "]|it. 

Note — CcMlc does not take the plural. 

(c) Sgtiíbinn ó |\át) béil. — Ap téigeAnn 10. 



teigeAtin a ceAtAitroéAS. 
I. 



tliop 


P1A. 


tliop 


SIOpt^A. 


>> 


leitne. 


>> 


cutriAin^e 


J J 


1110. 


99 


UlgA. 


>> 


Aoijvoe. 


99 


ipte. 


>> 


l\Airhpe. 


>» 


CAOile. 


)> 


CéAgAjltA. 


J> 


CAnAi*óe. 



11 Á. 

UÁ An pÁipéAj\ pAT)A. UÁ An bójvo níop y\A (niop puiT)e) 
nA ah pÁipéAp. Uá Ati pcót níop pic\ tiÁ ah bófvo. 

JZÁ An óaiIc ^Aipit). Uá Ati peAiin Ui<\it>e níop gtopftA nÁ 
Ati óAitc. An bpuit Ati óApó^ tiíop 5to|\j\A nÁ An £>epc ? 
tlíl, zá An cApós níop piA nÁ ah fcepc. An £>ptnt An peAni) 
níop ^iopfVA nÁ An teAbA|\ ? 



2 9 

JZÁ Ain bójvo teACAn. UÁ ah c-úplÁf\ níop teicne nÁ .An 
bójvo. An bpuil aii teAb<\p níop curiiAinge nÁ aii pÁipéAp ? 
An bptnt An clÁn níop tnó nÁ aii cÁpcA ? An bpuit aii 
frumneo5 níop Aoifvoe n4 At? pAtla ? An bpuil cop an pinn 
níop CAOile nÁ* cop ah pip? UÁ An teAb^p po niop "oeipse 

11Á All ÓACAOip pin. 



II. 

íú. é. i. 

UÁ An clÁp *oub niop AOip-oe 11Á mé. 

UÁ ^n *oopup níop AOijvoe 11Á tú, níop AOi|\*oe nÁ é, níop 
Aoip-oe 11Á í. 

{pinn. 
pib. 
1AT). 

An bpuil A11 t)ój\T) níop Aoip-oe nÁ cú, 11Á é, nÁ í, ná pmn, 
1f\l. 

(a) 5]\AiméAp. — tlíop \*\a nÁ. tlíop A01|AT)e nÁ tú. 

(b) S^pí'ig 10 pÁfóce iiia|\ é peo : — 

"UÁ cop An pinn níop *oeip5e 11Á cIóca aii óAitín;" A^up 
CAbv\ij\ ipceAó: — Deipge, bÁme, xmibe, bume, guipine, 
Stuipe. 

(c) Sspí'ig 10 pÁit)ce Agup 11A pocAit peo lonncA — 

Úú, é, í, pmn, pib, ia*o. 



(*°) S5|\íbinn ó \\Át> béit. 



3o 

I. 

Com pvod. Com gAipiT). 

te (teip -An). 

UÁ -All C-ÚptÁp p.AT)-A. UÁ -A!l p-AttA pAT)A. U-Á -All C-ÚplÁp 

Com p<voa teip Ati tipAtl-A. An ftpuil -An le.AO.An óorh 5Aipit> 
teip an bpÁipé-Ap? An bptnl -An leAbAp óorh p.A*o-A leip -An 
bpe-Ann? An bpinl -An pÁipéAp Com le-At-An teip -An 
mbójvo ? 

An bpuil -An bop^A óom móp leip «An mbpoi^ ? 
An bpuil -An bepc óorh ^at)^ teip -An gc-Af 015 ? 
An bptnl ^n pAltA óom h-ÁpT) leip An bpuinneoig ? 
An t>puit -An pe^n óom h-Áp"o teip -An mn-Aoi ? 
UÁ -An pe-A|\ níop Aoijvoe nÁ -An beAn. 

An bpuil -An clÁp T)ub óorh h-Áp-o tern' (le mo) ólUAip, 
tern' ppóin, tem' guAlAin ? 

An bpuil -An pÁipé-Ap óorh pat>a let)' (le *oo) LÁirh, let)' 
óoip, let)' méip ? 

An bptnt ^n gun a óom pA*OA leip -An scIóca? An bptnt 
-An beAn óom ti-ÁpT) leip -An 5CA1IÍ11 ? An bpuit ce-Ann -ah 
óAitín com h-Ájvo le cluAip ha mnÁ, le clUAip -An pip, óorh 
h-ÁpT) le n--A guAlAin, le n--A ótUAip? An bpuil An ó-Ailc 
mV lÁim a^aiti ? Cat) zá pé nV bpóig ? An bptnt -An bpóg 
An mo óoip ? 

II. 

1np ^n 1olpA*ó. 

tlít nA caúaoipaóa óom h-Áp-o teip nA *oóippib, leip nA 
ptnnneogAib, leip ha peApAib, leip nA CAilíníb. 

An n-A 

' ' }>CAtAoipAóAib, bójvoAib, peApAib, mnÁib, -jpl 

Óp iia (ó n-A) 



3i 
III. 

tiom. te-AC, i|\t. 

ílíl An bójvo corn n--Á|VO tiom. 

Oim corn h-Ájvo le-AC. 

tlílim corn h-ÁnT) teir -An bpeAn ; nílim corn h--Áfvo tetf. 

Hit cú óorh h-Ájvo teip -An gcaiUn ; nil cú corn h--Á|VO léi. 

ÍUnn. 
lib. 
teo. 

W 5r^ lrné ^- — ^ ei T ^ n tnbpóig. teif n-A *oóinpib. Com 

n--Árvo liom. 

(b) Sgfií'ig io line man feo : — 

i. t)ófvo — . An bónT), cor* -An búinx), leip -An mbó|vo, -An 
n-A bójvo-Aib. 

2. pumneo^ — . — — — — — — — — 

3. T)opup — . 4. ^uaLa — • 5- C°f — . 6. tí|\U\n — . 
7. t-Árh — . 8. ^e-An — . 9. be-An — . 10. tonóg — . 

(c) Sgní'ig 10 n-Ái"óce ^suf n <* poc-Ait feo lonnca : — 

tiom, le-AC, teif, léi, tmn, lib, teo. 

(U-Áim níof -Aoifvoe n-Á -An bójvo ; nil -An bón*o com íi--Ánx) 
liom). 



téigeAnn a séx)éA5. 

5-Á cun. j>Á cun. 

CÁim -A5 cun ^n le-AbvAin -An -An mbojvo. U-Áim gÁ cun -An 
-An mbónT). C-Á bpuiUm A5 cun -An le-Ab-Ain? U-aoi g-Á cun 
-An -An mbón*o. C-Á bpuitim -A5 cun -An jbmn ? U-aoi g-Á cun 
-A|\ -An te^b-An. C.á bpmLirn -A5 cun -An bopg-A ? Uaoi g-Á 
cun -An -An 5CAt-A0if\. 



3-2 

CÁim A5 cup nA CACAOipAó a\\ An úptáp. UÁim gÁ cup 
-Af\ -An úplÁp. Cá t>puitim a$ cup nA CAilce ? Uaoi gÁ cup 
a\\ An gCAtAOip. CÁ t>ptiit f é a$ cup íia piAgtAó ? UÁ pé 
gÁ cup a\\ An pcót. 

An bpmLip A5 co^Ainc An pÁipéip, An pcóil, An ólÁip ? 
UÁim gÁ togAinc. 

An bpuil fé 45 có^Ainc n^ CAtAoipAó, tiA CAilce, tiA 
piAgtAó ? UÁ f é gÁ to^Ainc. Cuip a\\ An mbóp-o i. CÁ 
bpuit pé gÁ cup ? 

An bpuilim a^ T>únA-ó An leAbAip ? Uaoi §Á *óún^"ó. 
An bpuitim A5 x>únAt) n^ -pumneoise? Uaoi gÁ -oúnAt). 
An bpuit pí A5 opgxMtc An mnpip? UÁ fí gÁ opsAilc. 
An bpuit f í a$ op 5A1IC nA pumneoi^e ? UÁ pí gÁ h-op5Aitc. 
An opuiUm a$ ophite nA c^pói^e ? Hílip gÁ n-op&Ailc, 
CA01 (cAOip) gA •oúnA'ó. 

A5 *oúnA*ó An T)uipif, (a$ a -óún^-ó) gÁ -óúnA-ó. 

A5 'oúnA'ó n^ pumneoise, (a$ a T)únA-ó) gÁ •oún-AT). 

W BP^ 1 ™^^- — 5^ cup, S^ CU F- Cmn a\\ x\n rnbopt) í. 

(b) Cuip pop-Ainm 1 n^Aó Áíz if j:éiT)ip é mp nA pÁi"ócib 
p eo : — 

(Put pronouns or possessives instead of nouns.) 

An leAbAp. — UÁ An ieAX)A\\ (cÁ pé) a\k An mbopx) ; CÁ -an 
pÁipéAp pé'n te-Ab^p (pé) ; cÁ An pÁipéAp níop piA nÁ 
An teAbAp ; nil An peAnn com pA*OA teip An teAbAp 
(leip) ; cÁim a^ có^Ainc An teAbAip (gÁ tó^Ainc) ; 
cÁim A5 of5Ailc An leAftAMp. ; C05 An teAbAp ; cia cá 
as có^Ainc An teAbAip? 

An CAtAOip. — TZA An c a\\ An úplÁp ; cÁ An bop^A 

pé'n 5c ; cÁim inV f ui*óe a\\ An 5c ; cÁ ino óeAnn níop 
AOipT)e nÁ An ó. ; nit mo glúm óorh h-Ápx) leip An 5c, ; 
cia cá A5 có^Amc nA c. 

An fuinneo^. — UÁ An p. níop AOip^oe nÁ tú ; cá An pAllA 
níop Aoip-oe nÁ Ati f:. ; cÁim a^ op^Aitc nA r- ; cia cá 
A5 op^Ailc nA p. ? cia cá A5 *oúnAt) iia p. ? 



33 

An ipeA\\. — ZÁ coy a An p\\ pé'n fcót; zÁ An le*.\D^\ be^s 
as An bpe<\n; nit a Yiaza a\\ An ope^; An é fin ^n ipeA\\? 

An X)eAn. — tlitim com mó\\ teip An rnn^oi ; CÁ bpnl 
clóCA nA mni? ZÁ a X)\\ó^ a\\ An mtu\oi ; nil An 
pÁ^péA\y as An mn^oi ; ZÁ An -oojuir niof ^oifvoe nÁ An 
£>e^n ; An í peo An be^n ? 



o 

J 

4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 

10 



21 



téigeAnn a seAcux)éA5. 
I. 



o tleAitimt). 
i Aon. 
2 T)ó. 

U|AÍ. 

Ccaúaiji, 

Ciíig. 
Sé. 

SeAóc. 
Oóc. 

11^01. 

T)eió. 

1 1 Aon*oéA5. 

12 T)ó-óé^5. 

13 r\\\T)éAS. 

14 CeAt-AijA'oé^. 

15 Cúi5-oé^5. 

16 Sé*oéA5. 

17 SeAócoéAj;. 

18 Occ-oéAg. 

19 ílAoroé<\5. 

20 pce. 
ÍAon a^V pee. 
lAon if pee. 

22 X)ó ^s ti r F i6e - 



30 T)eic Aguf pce. 

31 Aon*oé^5 a\\ pciD. 

32 Dó-óé^s a\\ ficro. 

39 tlAOi"oéA5 A|\ pci"o. 

40 X)aóa-o. 

41 Aon A^uy t>a£a'o. 

50 *Oeic ^suf t>a£at). 

51 Aon*oéA5 Aguf •oaóat). 

52 *0ó-óé^5 A£ttf "OAC-A-O. 

60 Um' pci*o. 

61 Aon x\5iif tpí pcit). 

70 T)eic Agdf upí pciT>. 

71 Aon-oé^s A$tir cní pern. 

72 T)ót)éA5 ^suf c Fí pciT). 

80 Ceitpe pci*o. 

81 Aon -Aguf ceitne pcit). 

90 Deic ^suf ceicpe pen). 

91 Aon*oé^5 ^E U T ceitpe 

pÓ1T). 

92 T)óT)éA5 ^5«r ceiCfAe 

pÓ1T). 

100 Cé^T). 
500 CÚ15 CéAT>. 
1000 tTlíle. 

(A5 corhAi|\e^iri.) 



34 



II. 



A$ Corh4if\earh. 

cotíuMfie^rh mo U^mro A"£ corruMp- 

e-Arii á\k 
U^c-aoi aj; corhAifv 

eAm tiufv 
U-ÁiT) fi<vo 45 com- 

AipeAm a 



•00 






com-AineAm a 
com-Ai^e^m -a 



CÁim as 

me-AJVAO-A. 

U-aoi 45 comAi^eArh 

unéA\\ACA. 
Uá fé .as 

méA|td&A. 

A ti-^on, a "oó, a Cftf, a ceatAyp, a CÚ15, a fé, -A fOAóc, a 
h-oóc, a r\AO\, a -oeió. 

Seo xMnmneAó-A in\ méAf\,AóA : An ófvoós, au méAf\ topAig, 
^n rhéA|A pxVOA, méA|A x\n p^inne, .An túi-oín. 

Oim x\5 corhAifAeArii v\a leAbAp : A n-Aon, -]f\t., a 
h-Aon*oé.A5, -ó "ootJeAg, a cproé^s, a ce-AtxM|\T)é-A5, -a CÚ15- 
•oé-Ag, a fé-oéA^, a f e^óc*oéA5, a n-oócoé^5, a n-AOi-oé-Aj;, 
-a póe ; -a ti--Aon if (^sup) ?\óe, a "oó -A^uf póe, a *oeió 
-A^uf pióe ; x\ n--Aon*oé-A5 a\\ ficiT), .a TxróéAj; -a^ frióiT), a 
*oaóa*o (*oÁ frióeAT)), -A tw\on*oéA5 ^s u f "DAoat), -a T>ót>éA*; 
if (-ASWf) "O-aó-at) ; -a cpí fióiD ; a óeitfie póit) ; CéxVO. 

Ca*o c-Áim a "téAn^m? U-aoi 45 corhAipeArh v\a le-AbAp. 
Com,Aif\im n-A caúao\\\aóa. A ti--Aon, a T)ó, -j[U.. 



tlA le>AbA1^. 


U.Á fé -A5 corhxMpe-Arh no 


t leAb-Ap. 


Ha pÁipéi^. 


>> 


>» 


>> 


bpÁ\péA\\ 


T1a pinn. 


j) 


» 


>> 


bpe-Atm. 


Í1a bop^Aí. 


>> 


>> 


> ? 


mbops-Aí. 


Ha bpós-A. 


»9 


>> 


>> 


mb|\ó5. 


Y\a pip. 


>> 


>> 


>> 


b^e-Aft. 


Ha mni. 


3? 


?? 


V 


mbAn. 


Y\a CAilíní. 


»> 


»? 


>> 


$CAiUní. 


T\a y^olÁ\\\U 


59 


9? 


>> 


rsouiff. 



(a) 5r A1tTlé ^r- — Aon, "oó. A n-^Aon. 

le-Ab-Ap. 



A5 corhAifie>Am nA 



35 

(t>) Cwp f-A geine^rhnaó tiA pocAil feo (le 45 T)ún<vó, ^5 
cup, ^5 corh^Mpe-cAtri, -]pl). 

(U^im ^5 *oúnxvó mo ful.) 

T)óippe, bof^Aí, búipt), pmnneo^, CAt*\oifu\ó-A, pAttAi, 
picciúi|ví, boit)éil, pinn ludi"óe, púite, co|M, LátriA,, 
c-Após^, bónaí, bpó5-A. 



teigeAnn a tvoCu*o6A5. 

An 'tn-óó teab^p. 
Cua triéiT) le-Att-cAp. 

An 'nróó te^bAp azá a\\ ^n mbóp-o ? (An ioiytoa le.\b<\p?) 



Aon óe^nn Arfiáin, 
*Ch\ óe^nn. 
Upí cmn. 
Ceitpe cinn. 
CÚ15 cinn. 
Sé cmn. 
Se^vóc 5cmn. 
Oóc ^cinn. 
Haoi gcinn. 
T)eió 5cmn. 
Aon óeonn "oéA^. 
*ÓÁ óe-Ann T)é-A5. 
Upí cmn *oéA5. 



Se^óc ^citin T)éA.\5. 

Oóc 5011111 "Oé<\5. 

tU\oi ^cinn -oé^. 

póe ce^nn. 

Ce<\nn ip pióe (^5up pióe). 

*ÓÁ ce,\nn 45 up pióe. 

Upí cinn 4511 p pice. 

'Oeió 5011111 -^up pióe. 

Aon óe*\nn *oé<\5 *\5up pióe. 

T)aó<VO ce*\nn. 

Ce.\nn ^^up "o-aóat). 

Cpí pióit) ce^nn. 

Ceitpe piói"o ce^nti. 



Céxvo ce-Ann, 



An 'm-óó -c^cAoip (cia rhéit) CAt^oip) azá mp^ cpeomp^ ? 
An 'm-óó le-Ab^p ? An 'ittóó bínpe ? An 'irmó ptnnneo^ ? 
An 'rrróó mé^p? -jpt. Aon ó^caoip Aiftám, -ÓÁ é^ú^oip, 
tpí CAt-AOip^ó^, "]pl. Aon te^b<\p ArhÁin, *ó<\ leab^p, cpí 
le-AbxMp, ipl. Aon bínpe Ariiáin, *ó^ bínpe, cpí bínpí, -jpl. 
Aon pumneos Arivátn, *óá puinneoi5, cpí ptnnneo^^, -jpt. 



36 

Aon méAp AtfiAin, *ÓÁ méip, cpí méApAÓA *oéA5, -jpt. Upí 
cinn T)éAS *oe rhéApAib, ceicpe cmn -o'puinneo^Aib, peAóc 
gcinn -oe teAbpAib. 

(a) "g\\&]tnéA\\. — An 'trmó teAbAp. AcÁ. Aon óeánn 

AtftÁm. *ÓÁ leAbAf. Ceicpe cinn *oe teAbpAib. 

(b) S^pí'ig aitiaó: — 

An 'trmó CAtAOip, av\ 'm*óó hAC>A, -jpt., acá fA cpeompA 

pO A£Up CÁ OptHt piAT) ? 

An 'nróó leAX>A\\, An 'm*óó piccuíip, ipt., «Agtif cá bpuit 

f1AT) ? 

(£Á "óá óAtAOip i*oip ^n *oojuip -Agiif x\n bóp-o, *7fvt.) 

(c) Ctnn pocAl 1 n-ionAt) ^ac line Atmpo fíof : — 

C.A*oé pn ? An LeAbAp. 

^n — An óAitc *oub ? tlíl, bÁn. 

An — fin An bófvo ? Hi — , — pin aí\ pcól. 
An — fin An óACAOip ? — 

An — mo CAfós gtAf ? Tlil — StAf, CÁ — •oub. 
C*vo CÁ pé'n — ? — An bop^A pé'n — 
An bptntip — ptn*oe Af An pcót? HíLim — — a\\ An 
pcót, cÁitn Ap An úplÁp. 

An bfUlt T)0 ftAZA 0\\Z ? UÁ Í1ACA — 

An bptnl mo óApóg oj\m ? UÁ 

An bpint — ctóCA Ap An mtu\oi ? O — cIóca — . 

Cia ti-iAT) pom ? nA CAilíní. 

An bptnt — 'r\ a peApAtfi ? — , cÁiu — 'n a — 

An iat) po — pip ? 1p — 

An teAbAp — peo ? — . 

An Viacaí — pom ? Hi — , ac CAipíní. 

("o) St^ 1 ™^! 1 ' — ^ n 1A *° I CAT) c ^> C1A b-iAT). CÁ pi opm. 

Ap *ÓórhnAtt. 



37 



léijeArm a haoi*o6as 

An 'ttvóó yes\\. 

An 'mttó jre^n (cia tiiéix) peAp) azS Atinfo ? 
ik\ pifu Sm peap (y\n aoii feAji Atfiáin), p |n 

cpiúp, *]|Al. Coiru\ij\irh n^ mru\. 

t)e^n. 



CorhAipim 
beij\c ; piti 



ifc> 



( = Aon fe^n ÁtftÁlfl). 
t)ei|\c fe^n. 

Ce^C|u\]\ pe^ji. 
Cúi5e<\n fe^fi. 
Seipe^n pédjt. 
ttlópfeipedf pe^p. 
Oócap jre^p. 
tl^onbup pe^ju 
"Oeióniub^p ye^\\\. 
Aon fe-Af *oé^5. 
TXÁjAé^s peap- 
Upí peAfiA *oé^5. 
Ceicpe j:e.\jw\ xjlmc;. 

póe pe-ap. 
£eaf\ if pice. 
bei|\c pe^n If pióe. 

Cfl pe^u\ pce^T). 
(Upí pe^pa ip pce.J 

t)u-AóaiU (Aon biu\caill AriOjn), beipc Ou^ó.mIU, CfUufi 

C-Aitín, beift óAiLíní, cfiiúf CAitínf, ce4£páfi CAjUní. 

te.\nb, beipc Leo,nb, cpiúp, ce.\qw\|\, -pi., te^nb. 

An 'ni-óó peap acá p4 creomp^ ? An 'nróó be„Mi ? An 
'mijó c<\ilín ? An 'm-óó biu\coJll ? ^n 'mófl te.\nb ? CÁ 
Dpml tu leanb^í ? 

An 'tn-oó pe^p, an 'nróó cailín, pa picciútf reo ? An 
'nróó CAiLín *xzS 'n a peapam ? An 'mxjó pe^xp 'n 4 f ui"óe ? 



( = ^on bean difl 
l)ei|\c (tail. 
UjUÚp ban. 
Ceacpan ban. 
Crimean ban. 

-jpt. 
Aon bean -oéas. 
'Óápéax: ban. 
Cpl trmá "oéa^. 
(Upi bean *oév\5.) 
Ceicpe rtini *oéa5. 
(Ceiq\e bean 'oé^.) 
pce bean. 
C|ií pici*o be^n. 
Céat) bean. 



38 
00 5r Airn ^r« — toeipc peAp. (An 'm-óó pe-Ap) 'n -a ptnúe. 

(b) Ss^i'ig AmAó -An méi*o peo crop; cuip pocAt i n-tonAT) 

5AÓ line : — 
U-Á -An peAp f o 'n a — a\\ -An gc-AtAoip, -A^up c-á — óop-A 
pé'n rnbó|vo Aige. 11 íl pé a$ ops-Ailc — *ouipip, r\Á -A5 

•oún-A"ó — ptnn , ac c-á peAnn 'n -a t Aige, -Agup cá 

pé -A5 pspíob-At) -A|\ — bpÁipéAp — -An bpe-Ann. UÁ peAnn 
UiAi'óe m a l eite Aige, aó nil — -A5 pspiolkvo I . 

tlít -A tlAC-A , AÓ ZÁ A bpO^A , -A^Uf ZÁ ÓI-AppÚip 'tl -A 

póCA -Ai^e. An — -An nuMjipcip — ? 

(c) Cuifi p,A be-Aninfgne -An tnéix) peo tu-Ap (beAn, m-Áigip- 

cpe-Áp, 1 n-ion-A*o pe-Ap, m-Áigipcip). 

Co) Cuip p-An lolpAt) é. (U-Á n-A -pi p, -|j\t.) 



téigeArm a pCe. 
I. 

tlíop mó te-Ab-Ap. 

UÁ óeiépe te-AbAip A^Am-p-A. U-Á níop mó n-Á éeicpe 
teAbAlp -a^ac-p-a. 

U-Á pé te-AbAip -AgAC. 

C-Á níop mó leAbap -AgAC-pA n-Á zá (n4 mAp -acá) AgAm-p-A. 

U-Á níop tugA teAb-Ap -A^Atn-p-A nÁ (mAp) &zá -AgAC-pA. 

Uá níop mó pe-Ann, bomé-At, pÁipéAp, -Ap -An mbínpe pin 
n-Á A|\ -An mbínpe peo. 

An bptul níop mó bAn, níop mó peAfi, níop mó buAóAilU, 
p-A picciúip peo nÁ pA picciúip pin? 

An bptnt níop tug-A puinneo^ -Ap -An peomp-A po n-Á a\\ -An 
peompA eile ? 

1p mó *oe teAbpAib -ac-ó -a^-ac-pa nS c-Á A^Am-pA. 

1p mó *oe pe-AnnAib, x>e boi-oé-AtAib, -jpl. 



39 

1p Lugd *oe rhnáib, x> } pea^ii), T)e "óóitifib, -\fl. 
"Cá t>Á le^t><\|\ 45 DóriitiAll. 
An mó zá 45 T)órhn-All nÁ zÁ AgAm-jra ? 
tlí mó, aó if tugA cá ^5 *Oórhn^tt uá ^gAC-f-A. 
An tnó zá AS&m-fA r\Á ag "OórhnAtl? 1f mó. 
Cá f é cinn *oe te^bp^ib ^s^c-f-A ; zá 'ÓÁ óeann 45 T)órh- 
n-atl. 

Uá óeitpe cinn 45-AC níop mó ná cá 45 Dórhn-Att. 

II. 

ílíl aó — . An oipe<<yo. 

^ ÍHít ^sac aó óeitne cinn. 
An bpnt re^c te^i r 454m ? ^ m 4Ó 6eitjie C|n „ , SAC , 

An £>puil cpí cinn 45 "Oórhn^ll? tlíl Aige ^ó "ÓA óeann. 

Cá *ó-Á le-Ao-ap 45 ÍD-Áipe ; an tipuit níof mó 45 THiipe ná 
c^ ^5 "Oórhnatl ? tlíl -aici -aó an oipe<vo cé«vonA. 

An t>puil oifie^T) (an oipe^-o) leAttap -Ag^m-f^ ^guf c-Á 45 
ttt-Áipe? Uá níof mó te^t^fi a^ac ná zá Aici-pe. 

An bpuit an oipeAD ban, an oipeAT) CAiUni, ^n oifieAT) 
t>01T)é^U — Agttf C-Á, -jpt. 

Deaf. Cléit. 

An Opuil nfof mó méAtiAóA -ap *oo LÁirh "óeip 11 -d ap *oo 
Láirh ótéit ? tlíl, 4ó an oipexvo cé^vona. 

Ca*oí ^n lárh í f in ? Siní ^n Látii "óeap. Siní x\n Lárh 
éléit. SmiaT) médfVAó-A na LÁirhe *oeife. Sinixvo méA|tAÓ4 
na táime cléite. 

W 5r^ lrnéA r' — Aict-fe. flíop mó le-Ati-ap. Ceitpe 
te-AtJ-áip, óeitpe cínn. 1p mó. 

(b) SgpUlg 10 *oe p^fócit), ^sup caóai|\ ifce-Aó n-a pocAil 

f eo : — 

tlít — aó, ^n oi^e^T), ip mó, níop mó, "oe^f, cléiú. 

(c) Sgpí'ig 10 Une df téige^nn 14 Aguf cuip "iffiV 

"an 5ioj\|tA," -][\t., 1 n-ion*vo " níop pa," ipt. 



4 o 

("o) Sgpfig ceipceAnnA oippií) *oop tiA ppeA5|iAíb peo : — 
(Write questions to suit these answers) : — 

i. "CÁ pi Afi an mbó|vo. 1 1. 1p pi a ah bóp*o Há é. 

2. 1x)i|\ Atl bójvo Agtif -ah 12. 1p -AOijvoe -An *oopup nÁ i. 

piinneog. 13. If 510^1 a mo bepc nÁ i. 

3. tlitim ; uÁim -A5 ce-Aóc 14. 1p mó c-Á -Ag-Am-p-A n-Á cÁ 

ó'n *oo|\up. -AgAC. 

4. U^ fí -A^ CÓ5-A1HC -All 15. tlíl -AC T)-Á Óe-Allll. 

le-AbAip. 16. tlít aó An oipeA"océ>AT)nA. 

5. U-á pé A5 op^Ailc -An 17. Siní mo tÁtfi óe-Ap. 

*OUinif. l8. tlí tl-lAT), -AÓ mé,A|\-AÓA 11A 

6. THl, aó cá pé g.Á T)únA-ó. LÁitfie ctéice. 

7. Ap iiA CAtAoip^éAió. 19. tlíl .Aó cmúp b-All. 

8. Uá pé -A5 pspíobAt). 20. 1p te-Ab-Ain. 

9. teip -An bpe,Ann. 21. 1p te-Ab-Ain ia-o. 
10. &\\ -An bpÁipéAp. 

(e) 5t^ irné ^ n - — ^ é - ^T le^bAiji, ip le-Ab-Ain uvo. 



téigeAnn a ti-<\on Agus pióe. 
I. 

Cuip n^ c-ÁpcAí a\k -An mbópT). 

An 'trmó cÁpc-A -acá ^Am-fA ? tlíl -aoii óipcA -A^Am. 
An bpuil -Aon ó-Ánc-A -a$ Dómtuvlt? ttíl -Aon ó-ájvca -Ai5e. 
U-Á nA c-ÁpCAí 50 léin -An An mbófvo. 

(UogAnn -An m-áigipcip cum *oíob.) 

11íl 11 a cÁnc-Aí 50 téin -An -An mbójvo. U-Á* cui*o "oíob 
-A5A11V-P-A. 

An bpuil piAT) 50 lélfl -Ag-Am ? tlíl AgAC -AÓ CU1X) Díob. 
U-Á ^n óui*o eite -An -An mbó|vo. 



4i 

An bpuit r\A ieAttaifi 50 téin a\\ An mbojvo ? 

Hit x*p ^n inbófix) aó cuit> Díob. Cá chit) *oíob 45 *Oó<m- 
tlAtt -A^Uf CU1T) T)ío£> ^5^m-f^. 

An bpuit An pe^nn *oe.Ap5 ? O cuit) *oe *oe-Ap5, ^sup 
cuiT) -oe -oub. 

An bptnt ^n ó*Mlc 50 léip bÁn ? tlít, zÁ cui*o *oi bÁn 
^5up cá cui*o t)i buróe. 

_. f *oínn ) f *oínn 7 

CA5Ainn) 111 01 (A5*\inn) 

inÁp pui-óe. 

O chit) |^ 5A10 J mttup re^rAm, Agtir t^ cui-o ^ 5 ^ m | 

tnbup fUfOe, 

tlít ^ó chit) be^s acu AgAwr-f-A- 

O cuit) iriófi acu x\|\ An mbópt). 
UÁ cinT) rriAic acu ^p An mbófvo. 

Ua dux) *oep m\ yeA\\ <\ib 'n a pe^fAtfi. 



i 



II. 

An 'm-óó Licip azá mf a bpocAt po, " cii n ? 

An 'trmó ticip azá mp<\ leAb<\p po ? 

O mópÁn Ucpe^cA p a teAb^p. tlíl ^c beAjÁn ticpeAóA 
mp-A bpocAt poin. 

An bpmt rnópÁn le^bAn acac? An f>pmt mópÁn bAn 
^npo ? TflópÁn pex\p, -jpl., be<\5^n poap, oAt-AOipAó-A. 

An bptnl AipseAT) 1*0' pócA a^at: ? 

UÁ mile púnc (£1000) ^5 *OótfmAlL; cÁ mópán ^1^5 1*0 

Tlít aó be^Án xMpgiT) ^s-Am-p-A ; nít ag^m aó *óá pinginn 
(2d.). 



42 

ÍUÁ níof mó ^1^51*0 ^5 T)órhn<at r\Á zá -AgAm-p-A. 
<1p mó x> } AipgeA-o acá a 5 T)órhnAtL nÁ -As^m-f-A. 

Cá cum rhAit leAbAfv AgAm-p a, A^up cÁ cum rhAit AipgiT) 
A5 T)órhnAtl. 

(a) SpAiméAp. — ^5 "OótfitiAtt. 1nbup. T)ep nA peApAib. 

Uú. ÍTlópÁn. 

(b) BAócpA. 

Cá mófin buAóAittí fA pgoit f eo > ctí1, ° ^cu beA^ Agup 
cum acu móp. tlíl piA*o 50 léip 'n a fe^f^m ; nil ac cum 
óeAg acu 'n a f e^f ^rh, A^up cá cum rhAit acu 'n a pufóe. 
flfl f-A fS 01 ^ ^ c - Aon róÁigipcin ArhÁm. 1p Aoifvoe ^n 
mÁigipcin nÁ nA bUACAitlí. UÁ mópÁn leA&Ap Ai^e, A$up 
cuit) tfwMt Aip^m. UÁ ptAC 'n a lÁirh *óeip A15C UÁ cum 
•oe'n cplAic bÁn A^up cum *oi bui*óe, A^up cá a bApp aj\ Ati 
mbínpe. 

1. Cia cÁ fA fsoit ? 

2. An bpuil riA bUAÓAitU 50 léip be^ ? 

3. An bpuit piA*o 50 léip 'n a peApAtfi ? 

4. An bpuit cum rhAic acu 'n a peApAtfi ? 

5. An bpuit "óá rhÁigipap fA P501L? 

6. An 'nróó buACAitl acá óorh n-Á^vo teip? 

7. An bputt Aon teAbAp Ai^e ? 

8. Cxvo eile cá Ai^e P 

9. Cá bptnl ^n ptAC ? (^n cptAc). 

10. An bpuit ^n plAC 50 téip -oub ? 

11. An a\\ au úplÁp acá bApp iia plAice ? 

(c) ^pAiméAp. — t)e-As4n; cum rhAit. An ptAC. 



43 

léigeAnn a t)0 ajhs piCe. 

tttipe. Uupa, i|\l. 

Cia cá a$ cógainc an leabaip ? ITIipe. (1p) mipe acá* £a" 
tógamc. 

Cia Cá a£ Of5<MlC All T)U1[\1f ? Utipa. Uupa acá, -J|At. 

XVn mipe acá 45 •oún<vó na puinneoige? 1p cú. tlí cú. 

An cupa acá a$ "oúnat) an T)utpip? 1p mé. tlí mé. 

An é an peap acá a$ cósainc an páipéip ? 1pé. ílí 
ti-é aó rmpe. 

An a$ "ounat) an -ouipip acánn? ^Seat). tlí ti-eat> 
aó, ifit. 

An a 5 pspíobat 1 ) acamro ? 1pea*ó. 

Cv\*o cá ap an mbópt) ? Uá an leabap aip. 

Cv\T) cá ap an gcacaoip ? JZÁ an bopga uipci. 

An ap an bpáipéap acáun a 5 pspíobat) ? 1p aip, ipeat) 
ní ti-aip, ní ft-e&X). 

An a$aib-pe acá na leabaip ? 1p againn. 



(a) 5F A,rnéA P' — Cia cá a$ cocaine. An mipe; an é an 
peap. Ati aj; *oúnat) ; an agaib-pe. Agaib-pe. 
An ap an bpáipéap. 



(b) Sgpí'ig ceipceanna -oe'n cineát po tíop a^up ppe^aip 
iat> : — 

1. (a) Uá An leabap ap an mbopt). 

(b) An bpuilan teabap ap an mbóp*o ? CFP^BI 1 *-) 

(c) An ap an tnbóp-o acá an leabap ? „ 
(*o) An é av\ le*\?)<\\\ acá a\\ an mbópx) ? „ 
(e) Ca*o cá ap an mbóp-o ? ,, 



44 

2. (a) U-Ámi -a 5 "oún-A"ó n a puinneoise. 

(b) An bpuilnn a$ *oúnAf) tn\ pumneoi^e ? (P|\. 

U-aoi (c-Á cú) g-á *oún^t)). 

(c) An imp e azá as "oún^vó ua puinneoige ? Cfpe^spA ) 
(*o) An í -An puinneog -ACÁim -a •úún-At) ? ,, 

(e) An -a 5 •oún-A'ó n^ ptnnneoige -AC-Áirn ? ,, 

(p) Cia z& -A5 •oútiAX) n-A pumneoi^e? „ 

I. CTá -An cIóca a\\ tíl-Áipe. 2. U-á -An c--Aiju;eAT) ^5 
T)ómn-Atl. 3. U-ÁmíT) -A5 pspiobAt) le ti--Af\ bpeAnnAib. 
4. Uá -An cAilín -A5 opg-Aitc -aii le.AbAip. 5. U-Á -An ó-At-AOif\ 
a|\ ^n lipl-Áfi. 6. U-ác-aoi (c-á pib) mbup puróe a\\ ii-a 
CAt<.\oin-AóAi£>. 7. U-Áim -A5 cup ceipce ofu\ib. 8. UÁ uú 
(c-aoi) -A5 "out cun -An -ouipip (50 *ocí -An •oopup) ó'n "oceine. 



téigeArm a uní ajus pce. 
I. 

tlíl -Aon c-Ápc-A -A5 T)órhn-AU, -ac zá le-ab-Ap -A^up P51A11 

Ca*o c-á ^5-Am-f-A ? U-Á p-Áipé-ap Ag-ám, 4£tif bops-A ctpíní, 
Agtff *ó-á pe-Ann. 

An f 51-Aii í peo ? An teAbAp é pin ? 1p te-Ab-Ap. If e-AÚ. 

An pe^|\ nú be^n é pm ? ílí pe-A|\ n-Á bean é, -Aft 
buAó-Ailt. 

An bójvo nú Tiopup í peo ? tlí bójro n^ •oopup í, -aó 

CACAOip. 

C-A*o cá p-A cpeotnjAA ? C-Á cac-aoij\aó-a, 4511 p bínpí, -Agup 
bójvo, -Agup pictiúipí, "Jitt. 

An bpuiL 11A picciúipí -Ap -An úpUÁp? HíLit). U-áid piA*o 
á\\ cpoó-A"ó leip -An bpAltA. An -Ap -An ííplÁp -acá -At\ 
p gÁcÁn ? 

Cat» zá a\\ -An inbójvo ? E-á le-Ab-Atp, 1pL.> >Ap -aii mbóp*o, 
^Sup boi-oéil •ouib. 



45 
II. 

UÁ au boiT)é*\l po lÁii. Uá An boi-oéAt fo polL\rh. 
An bpuil Aonnró eite Af An tnbójro ? Uá, -]pt. 
An bpmt Aonní-ó pé'n mbóftt) ? UÁ ptót pé'n robópo. 
Ctnfi do LÁifi Af All bpÁipéAf. An bpi.il Aonníxj pé'r 
bp.MpéAp? UÁ |ttro 615111 pé. 

Áp-omg <\n pÁipéAji Cat) cá pé ? Cá bUnj\e c<Mtce pé 
v\n bpuit Aonnró pé'ti ^CAÚAOip ? 11íl Aonnrú púiti. 



pum. 


puimi 


púc. 


pfliO. 


pé. 


pÚCA. 


pííiti. 





OmíT> mÁp p tinóe, A^tip cÁ nA cacao?p aca ptnnn. 
Cia cá 'n a feApAifi ? 11íl Aoinne 'n a feApAiíi. (ttít aoti 
•ouine, Aon neAÓ.) 

An bptnl AOinne a$ p£píobA"ó ? 

UÁ "0111116 éigm A5 buAlATj Ati iíplÁip. Cia cÁ Ag buALvó ? 

UÁ T)uine 615111 Ag Afl n*oofuip. An bpwl AOinne, *]|\L. 

W 5t UMrné ^F- — ^ n LeAbAtt é. An bófvo nú popup í. Cat) 
cÁ — cÁ CACAOipACA. A 5 bu aUvó An úplÁip. 

(b) S^píbmn ó pÁ"ú béit. — Ap LéigeAnn a b-Oct ^ah aii 

c-Aipcio^Al. 

(An U\rh nú cop í pin ?) 

(c) Bacc^a. 

Cá beipc pe^p pA cpeompA, 'n a puróe Ap CAtAoipACAib. 
'CÁ pÁipéAp A^up teAÓAp Ap An mbópT), A^tif t)Á boméAl, 
^5 ll T ^OfJA- W peAnn pé'n bpÁipéAp, A£t)p nil Aonnít) 
pé'n teAbAn. Uá ce^nn *oep iia boroéAlAtti lÁn pe *óut), 
A^up cá An ceAtin eite polU\rh. 11 íl ati bop^A pollAtfi. 

1. An beipc bAti A€Á pA cpeompA ? 

2. An 'n a pint)e cÁit) piAO ? 



4 6 

3- An f cól -ac-a ptit-A ? 

4. Ci-a c4 'n -a f e^f ^rh ? 

5. An Af\ -An mbóivo .ac-á -An pÁipéA^? 

6. An bptnl -Aonnró £é ? 

7. Cat> zá pé'ti te-Ab-Af\ ? 

8. An -Ap ó-At-Aoip ac-Á n-á boméit ? 

9. An bjruit ce-Ann acu LÁn ? 

10. C-a*o *oe 50 bpnl fé tán (cat) t>e a bpuit yé lÁr\) ? 

11. Ca*o c-á f a boi"oé-AL eile ? 

12. An bj:tnt -Aonnró |\a bops-A? 



téigeAtin a ceAtAm a^vis pióe. 
I. 

feAftinpsne. tte-Aninpsne. 

An pe^F mó|\. An bean rhóp. 

An bófvo mó|\. An bpó^ be-Ag. 

An f cól pvo-A. An rhé-Af\ f-A*OA. 

An Le-Ab-Afi *oub. An ó-Af 05 "óub. 

An bUAó-Aill beAg. An óof -óe-Af. 

An CAiUn be-Ag. 

1f -Aoijvoe -An ó-Afc-Aoip be-Ag ná -An bófvo móp. 

1p fiA -An peAnn *oe-Af5 n-Á mo rhéA|\ f atm. 

An s io rP A An ^Afóg buróe nÁ -An óAfó^ gtAf ? tlí 
gio^A, ipt. 

Uá te-AbAfA T)e-A|\5, -A^uf te-AbAp -oub, ^sup te-Ab^ SO|\m 
-Af an mbófvo. 

Cia .acu -An te-Ab-Ap "oeAfs ? Sine -An leAbAp *oe-Ap5. 

Cia acu -An le.\b-A]\ *oub ? Cia -Acu -An te-AbAfi 50pm ? 

Cia -acu if f i-A, -An f5ix\n be-Ag nú -An páipé-Aj\ bán ? 

2i-a -Ag-Ainn if Aoifvoe, mife nú tuf\A? 

Cia -Ag-Ait) if mó, cuf-A nú T)órhnAll ? 

C1A AKAlb <*c4 as f SftíObAt) ? 



47 

If tnó An leAbAfi "oeAps nÁ An teAbAn "outt; if mó Ar 

leAbAp T)ii5 nÁ An leAbAp 50pm. 

'Sé An leA'óAp *oe^p5 An teAbAn if mó. 

'Sé An leAbAn 50pm An leAÓAfl tf tugA. 

Cia acu fo x^n pe^nn ir fiA ? 

Cm An reAn ) ^ 

^ . , r ■ f ir Aoitvoe Annro ? 

Cia n-e An jreAn ) ■ ■ ' 

ClA tl-1AT) ACÁ A5 rspiobAt) ? 

II. 

Ha -oóinre mófA. Ha mnÁ" móf a. 

TÍA bm\óAitU beA^A. Ha bpó^A beA^A. 

11a pn rhópA. TIa méApAÓA £AT)A. 

tlA leAbAlfA "ÓUbA. Y\A CArÓ^A "OUbA. 

TIa fcóil jwoa. 

UÁ cpí fcóil pvoA fA r^oit, A^ur cá nA buAóAillí beA^A 
'n a f ui*óe o\\úa. 

Cia acu 'n a funóe nú 'n a reAfAtfi acá nA pn rhójvA? 

(a) ]$\\A]iméA\\. — An tte-An rhón. An CAilín beA^. 1f fiA 

An peAnn nÁ — . An p e^n if AOijvoe. t)tiAÓAilU 
beA^A. pn rhópA. 

(b) Cuin "móf" 1 n-oiAi-ó nA bjrocAl f o : — 

^eAp, ptU. úplÁp, beAn, cop, ceAnn, full, ctUAf, 
bofSA, bpó^, CAilín. 

(c) Ctnn u beA^ M leo p An ioln<vó. 

(■o) Cuin 1 jtÁfóciO (í cia ASAinn," "cia A^Aib," " cia 
Act*" 

(e) S^^í'iJ 5 fiÁi"óce mAp An |\Á*ó fo : — 

Cia acu fo An i?uinneo5 ip leitne? 



48 



CRITICISMS. 

Language teaching, in common with all true teaching, 
pre-supposes a thorough training of the teacher in his 
particular department. Oral teaching especially, in which 
the skill of the teacher counts for so much, was almost 
unknown in Ireland until quite recently; and the want 
of a sufficient number of teachers, trained to teach a 
language orally, has been a very serious obstacle to the 
Gaelic renaissance. Happily the importance of training, 
particularly in oral methods of language teaching, is be- 
ginning to be understood and appreciated. 

The following observations, made whilst I had charge 
of the Munster Training College in 1904, will, I hope, 
prove useful to teachers of Irish, as showing some of the 
common faults of untrained teachers. 

The students of the College were required, in turn, to 
teach a language lesson orally. These students are hence- 
forth called teachers in these notes. 

1. Many of the teachers, by their attitude and general 
bearing before the class, betray a diffidence which could 
not fail to discredit them as capable teachers in the eyes 
of their pupils. 

The class will generally estimate the teacher ac- 
cording to the teacher's estimate of himself. The 
teacher should, in his bearing before the class, inspire 
confidence in his pupils by showing confidence in 
himself. 

2. A common result of this attitude is that the pupils 
lose interest in the lesson. The teacher loses control of 
the class, and directs his instruction to those only who 
are least inattentive. 

3. Some teachers speak very indistinctly; whilst some 
who put their questions clearly accept answers in an in- 



49 

distinct and muttering tone, as if the object were merely 
to test the pupil's knowledge of the subject matter. 

It should be clearly borne in mind that the lan- 
guage teacher's object is to teach language rather 
than philosophy. The questions should be clearly 
enunciated, and the answers full, correct, and distinct 
in every word and syllable. 

4. Faulty enunciation is particularly noticeable in the 
inflected forms of feminine nouns like ^timneo^, cop, LÁrh, 
etc. From habitual carelessness in speaking, or want of 
attention to the requirements of grammar, the preposi- 
tional case of such nouns is generally pronounced just 
like the nominative. 

5. A common fault is for teachers to do most of the 
talking themselves, giving the pupils but very little prac- 
tice. The teacher frequently asks a question twice or 
three times over, and repeats the answer after the pupil. 

One third of the class time is sufficient for the 
teacher to do all his talking in. His questions 
should be so devised that the pupils should have talk- 
ing practice during the remaining two thirds of the 
time. 

6. A common failing with novices at oral teaching is 
to ask questions which can be answered only in the same 
words, but with zá or nit substituted for an Optnl at the 
beginning, tp or ni for ah, etc. 

7. A worse fault still is, when teaching object lessons, 
or action lessons, the teacher remains still, instead of 
making the movements which the words suggest (or which 
would suggest the answer). 

Xo good teacher will omit the proper gestures in 
such cases. 

8. A few ask, almost exclusively, such questions as are 
.mswered by the exact words of the text, while others ask 



5° 

such far-fetched questions that the pupil is at a loss what 
to answer. For example, one will ask: " Cat> T)ut!>óinc 
an mATM ftnvó ? " Answer in text. Another will ask: 
il Cionntif a ui Ati ppo^ mí-cúmt a ? " 

The teacher, until he has had long experience, 
should carefully prepare his questions beforehand. 

9. A difficulty with some is that they cannot ask a 
number of simple questions on the same subject, or vary 
their questions so as to give the pupils conversational 
practice with the minimum of time and trouble on the 
part of the teacher. Consequently their stock of questions 
soon runs out, and they are obliged to have recourse to the 
text book very frequently. 

10. Many teachers have a habit of using pet words and 
phrases, such as Atioif, 're<\t>, ip m^it é ym, iv.aic ^n 
oikvcaiU, etc These pet words and phrases are quite 
unnecessary and waste valuable time ; what is worse they 
are usually meaningless to an elementary class. 

11. Teachers frequently allow themselves to be drawn 
away, by answers given, or questions asked by the pupils, 
from the subject of the lesson. 

12. I notice that many teachers drift unconsciously 
from one tense of the verb to another. Thus, while giv- 
ing one of the earlier lessons, in which the present and 
habitual present only occur, a teacher will frequently put 
a question or two in the conditional, and revert again to 
the present tense. 

The pupils should be perfectly familiar with all 
the more common verbs in the one tense before they 
are taken to another tense. A short narrative, told 
first in one tense and again in another, is a most use- 
ful exercise. But a running fire, backward and for- 
ward through the tenses, is never commendable, as it 
will puzzle any but the most ready speaker. 



5i 

(The Present is the only tense of the verb given 
in Part L). 

13. I attribute the faulty teaching in great part to the 
want of text books suitable for oral teaching. Good text 
books are to the teacher what good tools are to the 
mechanic. 

I would strongly recommend all teachers of Irish 
to undergo at least one course of training in some 
one of the Gaelic training schools. Several of those 
who came to Ballingeary with the firm conviction 
that they were past masters in the art of language 
teaching, soon discovered that they had nearly all 
the faults above enumerated. And I bear willing 
testimony to their patience under my criticism. 



52 



SttAitnéAtt. 



ASPIKATION. 

1. Aspiration is denoted in writing by placing a dot over 
the aspirated letter. 

2. The aspirable letters are b, c, t>, p, 5, m, p, p, c. 

3. The initial consonant of a feminine noun, preceded 
by the article, is aspirated in the nominative and accusative 
singular (except those beginning with -o, c, p ). — An be^n, 
^n ó<dúAOi|\. 

4. The initial consonant of a masculine noun, preceded 
by the article, is aspirated in the genitive singular (except 
those beginning with t>, c, p). — Cop An buifvo. 

5. The adjective is aspirated : — 

(a) When it agrees with a fern, noun in the nom. 
and accus. singular. — An be*\n rhóp, be^n rhóp. 

(b) When it agrees with a noun in the plural nom. 
or accus. ending in a slender consonant. — pip rhópa, 

pcóil p<V04. 

6. The numerals ^on and t>Á cause aspiration of the 
noun. — Aon peann AmÁm, -óá óACAoip. (See also pars, 13, 
14). 

ECLIPSIS. 

7. Eclipsis of an initial consonant is denoted by placing 
another consonant before it. 

The eclipsable letters are b, c, *o, p, 5, p, u, p, each of 
which has its own eclipsing letter. 

8. A preposition followed by the article eclipses the 



53 

initial consonant of singular nouns. — Aja ^n 5cU\fi, ^5 au 
optnnneois. 

Exceptions : — 1*oip with the article makes no change in 
the noun. — 1-oip au uója-q A^uf . 

1nf and *oe, with the article, usually cause aspiration of 
the noun, not eclipsis. — 1np An (mpa) bop^A, "oe'n ti)ó|\-o. 

In Ulster aspiration, not eclipsis, is the rule after a pre- 
position with the article. In Connacht inf eclipses, while 
aja makes no change. — 1np An tnbopsA, a\\ An ctÁfi. 

The letter -o at the beginning of a noun generally resists 
eclipsis. — A5 av\ •oofwp 

9. 5° "o^i is very commonly treated as a preposition, 
and, with the article, causes eclipsis (except in the North). — 
50 "oci An *oceme, au bjruinneois. 

10. The article eclipses fern, nouns beginning with y 
followed by ]\ or a vowel in the nom. and accus. sing. — An 
Cfiiit, An cfftón. With fem. nouns in yl the practice 
varies. — An flAC, An cflAC. 

11. The article prefixes c to masc. nouns beginning with 
ar vowel in the nom. and accus. sing. — An z-ú\\lÁ\\. 

12. The article eclipses the genitive plural of nouns masc. 
and fem. — A5 coiiu\i|\e.\iri ha bj:eAj\,A5 corhAi^eArii nAtnb^n, 
(See also pars. 13 & 14). 

POSSESSIVES. 

13. (a) The possessives rno, *oo, and a masculine 
aspirate the initial consonant of the noun following, 
sing, or plural. — ttlo bónA, *oo £^05 a, a 6a? 05. 

(b) The initial consonant is not affected by 1 
feminine. — A gúnA, a b\\ó^A. 

(c) Ap, bup, a (plural) cause eclipsis. — Ap rnbófvo, 
bufi mb|Aó5>d, a n^titiAi. 

14. These possessives combine with the preposition Ag 



54 

before a verbal noun, and the initial of the verbal noun 
suffers the same changes as above : — 

UÁim gÁ cosine ( = as & togAinc), mas. sing. 
,, g-á có^Ainc ( = &5 A cog-Ainc), fern. sing. 
,, %& *ocó5aiiic (=^5 a *ocó5Ainc) mas. and fern, 
plural. 

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE. 

15. Every complete sentence must contain a subject 
and a predicate. The subject is what we speak about; the 
predicate is what we say about it — 

"CÁ An cxMlc bÁn. 
(subject) (pred.) 

1p poc^l é. 

(pred.) (subject) 

16. The assertive verb if is always followed by the pre- 
dicate. 

INTERROGATIVE S. 

An, cÁ, cad, ciA. 
Atl. 

17. Questions asked with An followed by a personal 
pronoun are answered by ip (or its negative) with a personal 
pronoun. — An é — ? 1p é. An iat) — ? tli Ii-ia-o. 

18. Questions asked with An followed by a verb are 
answered by some part of the same verb. — An £>]:uil — ? 
TLÁ. tli topmt (nil). 

19. Questions asked with Ah followed by 'nróó (for 
number) are answered by a statement of the number, with 
or without cá. — An 'irmó leAbAfi azá a^az ? "OS leA$A\\. JZA 
t>Á leA\bA\\ A$Am. The nom. sing, of the noun follows 
An 'nróó. 

The comparative niop 1110 is followed by the gen. of the 
noun. — tlíop mó ^1^51*0, níop mó ban. 



55 

20. (a) Questions asked with an followed by (1) a pre- 
position, (2) a prepositional pronoun, (3) a noun, (4) 
a verbal noun, are answered by ir followed by (1) a 
preposition, (2) a prepositional pronoun, (3) a noun, 
(4) a verbal noun ; or by if and the pronoun e*\t>. 

(b) In (1) above, preposition and noun in the re- 
sponse may be replaced by a prepositional pronoun. 
An a^ T)ómru\Ll — ? If a$ T)óirmAlt. 1f Aige. 

An Ag DórhnAtl aua An 1r a 5 DótrmAtl. 

teAbAf\ ? 

An AgAm . . . . ? 1f a^ac. If e&t). 

&n leAbAf\ é feo? If leAbAn. 1 

An 45 rsníob' AC-á fí ? 1r Ag r^niob'. J 

CÁ. 

21. Questions asked with c.\ and a verb are answered by 
the verb. — CÁ Dp uit — ? Ca — . 

CAT). 

22. (a) Questions asked with cad followed by a per- 
sonal pronoun are answered by if and a personal 
pronoun when the question has reference to a definite 
noun. — Cad ia*o foin ? If uvo fom nA leAbAip. 

(b) When the question has reference to an in- 
definite noun, it is answered by ir followed by the 
noun. — Cat) ia*o fom ? If teAbAin iat). (See par. 24). 

23. Questions asked with cat) followed by a .verb are 
usually answered by the same verb — ■ 

„ • ^ í UÁ Am leAbAn <\n An tnbótvo. 

Cat) c.\ An An mbotvo ?-{_.., _. ' ' _ . ' 

1 ' ( Ua leAbAn aj\ An mbonT). 

(See par. 24). 

24. In the two preceding paragraphs the noun, definite or 
indefinite as the case may be, will suffice as answer. — (1r iat) 
fom) 11a teAbAin. (If) teAbAin (iat)). (ZS) An leAbAn 
(....). (UÁ) teAbA|\ (....). 



56 

C1A. 

25. (a) Questions asked with cia are answered by if 
and a personal pronoun. The emphatic form must 
be used except when the pronoun is followed by the 
noun to which it refers. — Cm ti-i*vo f oin ? 1p i<vo 
pom tu CAiLíní. Cm ZÁ — ? 1f mife acá — . 1pé 
*Oóirm**U, azá — . 

(b) 1p may be omitted, and the question answered 
by a definite noun, or an emphatic personal pro- 
noun standing alone. Thus. — tla cAilíni. Dórhnxxll. 
mife. 



NUMERALS. 

26. Aon, -co, cfvi, etc., standing by themselves, are merely 
the names of the numbers. 

27. When used in counting, and not followed by the 
noun, the numerals take a before them (except cé<vo, -óá 
óéxvo, etc.). — A ti-^on, a *oó, a c|\i. 

28. When the numeral is followed by the noun a is not 
used. — Aon óe^nn &mÁm, t>Á óexxnn, cjaí cmn. 

Note. — With ^on the noun is usually followed by 

29. After x\on, *ó<\, póe, and all the multiples of póe, 
the singular form of the noun is used. 

30. After the other numerals it is usual to give the nom. 
plural of the noun. — Ceitfie le-at^ip. Or the prepositional 
plural may be used, thus.— Ceicpe cmn *oe le^bjuMb. 

31. Applied to person from two to ten, and twelve, special 
forms, called numeral nouns, are used. — beipc, cjuúp. 

32. When these numeral nouns are immediately followed 
by a distinguishing noun it is in the genitive plural. — 
t)eii\c £>*\n, c|\iú|\ ban. (beipc aspirates the noun following.) 



57 

EMPHATICS. 

33. The following classes of words take emphatic 
suffixes : — 

Nouns (including verbal nouns) following a pos- 
sessive. — tT)o óAfós-fA, 

Personal and prepositional pronouns. — Uujm, 

Synthetic or personal verbs — c^im-pe. 

34. -jw follows a broad termination, -pe a slender termina- 
tion in the preceding word. Thus in the text. — Agam-pA, 
-AS-AC-pa, ^5<Mt)-f e. So also. — An pe^p f o, au t>u4óAitl yeo. 

The suffix of the 1st per. plural -ne is unchangeable. — 
Again n-ne. 

35. In addition to the above classes of words, all nouns 
become emphatic when followed by the word pern. — mo 
póCA £éin, T)6rhn-All pém. 

AKTICLE. 

36. An, the only article in Irish, becomes n^\ before the 
genitive singular of feminine nouns, and before the plural 
of all nouns. — An óAc^oip. Cop na Cc\c40ifu\c. Y\& 

CAtA01\\AÓA. 

37. A noun preceded by the article is a definite noun. 
(For initial changes caused by the article see under 

Aspiration and Eclipsis). 

NOUN. 

Gender. 

38. All nouns in Irish are either masculine or feminine. 

39. Names of males, and most nouns ending in a broad 
consonant (i.e., a consonant preceded by either of the broad 
vowels a, o, u) are masculine. 

40. Names of females, nouns ending in 05, and most 



58 

nouns ending in a slender consonant (i,e. y a consonant 
preceded by e or i) are feminine. 

41. No further general rules can be given here to deter- 
mine the gender. The learner will find it best to learn the 
gen. sing, with the article. Thus, bpóg ita tnriA, bÁjifi wa 
ptunneoi^e, show that be^n, pumneoj;, are fem. nouns ; cop 
An búijvo, va\\\\ An *oui|Aif, show that pe^fi, T)ojAUf, are 
masculine. 

Case. 

42. The cases used in the text are four : — Nominative, 
Accusative, Genitive, and Prepositional. 

43. The accusative case of the noun is always the same 
in form as the nominative. 

44. (a) The nom is usually after the verb. — ZÁ 
T)órhnAtl 'n a feAjMrii. 

(b) When the nom. is an interrog. pronoun it 
comes before the verb. — C\a zá 'n a f e^f Arh ? 

45. The accus. is the form governed by a transitive 
verb. 

46. The gen. is the form governed by another noun. — 
Cop pinn, mófián 41^51 1> ; or by a verbal noun preceded by 
^5- — A5 cog-Ainc ^n pinn. 

47. The prepositional is the case governed by any 
simple preposition. 

48. Example. — pe^nn. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. — TZÁAn peAnn A^An mbópt). O 11 a pinn. 

Accus. — U05 ^n pe-Ann. Cog ua pinn. 

p _ _ Í C°P ^ n pitin. Coj\a nA bpe.Ann. 

( A5 có^Ainc An £inn. A5 có^Ainc ha bpe^nn. 

Preposl. — Veif An bpe^nn. teir nA pe.Ann-Aib, 



59 
ADJECTIVE. 

49. The adjective usually follows its noun. 

50. When the adjective is predicate of the sentence oi- 
phrase it does not change its form. — JZÁ au ca\> 05 *oul> ; zá 

51. When the adjective is not predicate it agrees with 
its noun in gender and number. — ZS c-Afóg *óub AgAtn, zÁ 

c^pógA -ouVj^ 454111. (See par. 5). 

52. Adjectives have three degrees of comparison : posi- 
tive, comparative and superlative. 

53. The positive is the simple form of the adjective. — 
te4C4ii. 

54. A special form of the adjective is used for compara- 
tive and superlative. — Leitne. 

55. In a complete sentence the comparative of the 
adjective is followed by nÁ. 

5G. When the sentence or phrase begins with any verb 
except ir* the comparative of the adjective is preceded by 
niof. — UÁ ATI pÁipéAft níor* leitne x\Á 4n le4t)4|i. If leitne 
411 p4ipé4p 114 411 le^tx\fi. 

57. The adjectives tnón, be4£, £4-04, 541^1-0, S\\v, are 
irregular in comparison. — ttló, U154, -|pt. 

58. The adjective in the superlative is not followed by 
ru\, and it is otherwise distinguished from the comparative 
by the structure of the sentence. — An le4t>4f\ if leicne ; ah 
f e4n if 40i|\"oe. 

PRONOUN. 

59. The personal pronouns are : — Sing. — mé, cú, fé, fí 
Plural — rmn, pb, fiAt). They denote gender in the 3rd 
sing. only. — Mas., fé or é ; fern., p or i. 

60. The gender of the pronoun in the 3rd sing, is that 
of the noun to which it refers. — An í pn 411 bójvo nú 4n 



6o 

•oofuf ? tlí íi-í, etc. 'Si fin ^n c^caoip. Here the noun 
CAtAoi\\, though not expressed in the question, determines 
the gender of the pronoun. 

Exceptions. — QaiUn is a masc. noun, and takes the adjec- 
tive in the masculine ; but it takes a feminine pronoun. — 
An í f eo au CAiUn be^s ? 

For unknown gender the custom is to use f é, é. — C&vé 
fin 1*0' pó(M a^az? 

61. é, í, ixvo, are variants of fé, fí, fi*vo respectively. 

62. The forms é, í, i^vo follow the verb ip . 

63. When the pronoun is nom. case immediately after 
any other verb, the forms fé, p, fiat) are used. — Zá pé, fí; 
nil fixvo. 

64. When the pronoun is accusative after the verb, é, 1, 
wo are used. — U05 é ; cuif a\\ ^n rnbójvo i^t). 

65. In all other connections é, í, ia*o are used. 

66. The form tu is used instead of cu in the accus. and 
after t\Á. — ttíof 401 foe nÁ tu. 

trie and cú are usually pronounced short in Munster 
(me, cu). 

67. The personal pronouns come after the verb. When 
accus. they are generally at the end of the sentence. — Cuif 
a\\ &n mbójvo é. 

68. tThfe, cuf-a, finne, fibfe, are emphatic forms of mé, 
eu, firm, fib. 

69. The personal pronouns, with the exception of the 
3rd sing., when nom. case after a verb (except if) are 
generally expressed by terminal inflexion of the verb. — 
U^itn, U-A01 or c^oip, nítif, niti"o. (See par. 81.) 

70. For 3rd plural the pronoun is often added after the 
inflected verb. — Hiiro fuvo. This does not apply fc> all 
the tenses, nor to all parts of Ireland. 

(For prepositional pronouns see under Preposition.) 



6i 

VERB. 

71. Verbs are either Transitive or Intransitive. Trans. — 
U05, cuifi. Intrans. — Uéipig, za\\. 

72. Transitive verbs govern nouns and pronouns in the 
accusative. 

VERBAL NOUN WITH A5- 

73. The form of the verb preceded (in the text) by the 
preposition a^ is called the verbal noun. — (A5) cosine. 

74. A verbal noun formed from a transitive verb governs 
the noun following in the genitive. A5 cocaine -an 
lex\t)<Aip, da cilice. 

75. When the noun is not expressed after the verbal 
noun with 45, its place is not supplied by a personal pro- 
noun ; but the appropriate possessive particle is placed 
between as arnd the verbal noun. 

A5 có^Ainc au leA\bA)\\. A5 a (§á) to^Ainc. 
A5 có5-Ainc na cilice. A5 a (§á) cosine. 

The possessive in this position affects the initial of the 
verbal noun. (See pars. 13, 14.) 

VERBAL NOUN WITH T)0. 

76. (a) Some constructions in the text require *oo 
before the verbal noun : — 

Cat) cÁim a (t)o) "óúriAt). 

CAT* CÁÍÍÍÍ A -Ó' Of5<MlC. 

(b) As a rule -oo is not expressed before a con- 
sonant, and it takes the form of -ó' before a vowel. 

(c) In such constructions a precedes -oo (expressed 
or understood), and the initial consonant of the 
verbal noun is always aspirated. 



62 
ZÁ AND AUÁ. 

77. As in par. 76 (above) a frequently comes before the 
verb cá. It joins with the verb, and we have the form 
azá, except (in the text) — 

(a) At the beginning of a sentence or clause of a 
sentence. 

(b) After the interrogatives cat), cia. 

(c) After a vowel in the middle of a sentence, 
when it is usually omitted. — 1f mó (a) zá a^aw-^a 
r\Á — . 

MOODS. 

78. The Moods in the text are : — 

Indicative. — Example — TZÁ au le^bAfi — . 
Imperative. — ,, U05 An leAb^f. 

79. The Imperative Verb in the 2nd person sing, is called 
the stem or simplest form of the verb. 

80. A Kegular Verb is one in which the stem is con- 
tained in all the forms of the verb. — U05, as co^mc. 
Thin, x*5 -oúnxvó. 

Examples of Irregular Verbs. — Uei-pig, a^ twI. 
"Ca\\, as ce^óc. Here the stem is not contained in 
the verbal noun. 

81. A verb inflected for person is called a Synthetic o v 
Personal Verb. — Oitn. (See par. 69.) The form of the 
verb without the personal inflection is called the Analytic 
form. — IZá (mé). 

PREPOSITION. 

82. A preposition with the article usually eclipses a 
sing. noun. (See par. 8.) 

83. Without the article some prepositions cause aspira- 
tion. — A|\ "ÓómruAll; and some do not. — A 5 *OórhnAli. 



63 

84. The prepositions 1, in, le, become itif, leip, before 
the article sing, or plural. — lnp an, inf ruA, teif ^n, teif ruA. 

85. The prepositions *oo, -oe, ó take f before the plural 
article only. — X)ey n^ boi-oe-aUMtt. 

86. Simple prepositions ending in a vowel when followed 
by the possessives mo, -oo, combine with the latter in one 
word. — 1m' (or im) póc^, te-o' pe^rm. (After im' the p of 
póc-A does not aspirate, for phonetic reasons). Note also 
mS\\ for m Á\\, in£>uf\ for in ftuju 

87. Simple prepositions unite w 7 ith the personal pro- 
nouns, forming prepositional pronouns. — A^m (from ^5 
me). 

(For A^Am-p, etc., see par. 33.) 

88. The prepositional pronouns in the text are : — 

From as -Agam, etc. 

>, a\\ ofAtn, etc., 

„ *oe *oe, *oi, *oíoó. 

.. -pé pum, e ^ c - 

,. le Uom, Icac, etc. 



poclóin. 



a, hi 8 ; her ; their. 
ac, but (also acc). 
A^Am, ajjau, -)pl. , prep, pron., in 

my, in thy, possession. 
A3Uf, co»j., and ; sometimes, as. 

(oíten written ir ; contracted *]). 
A3ur* fto leAriAf ; "]nt., etcetera. 
Aibt;iuifi, f., alphabet. 
Ai|t, on him ; on it. 
AijtciojAt, m., article. 
An, article, the. 

An, inter rog., whether (eclipses verb). 
Annro, here. 
Aomne, anyone. Aon + nedc, a 

person. 
Aonnix), anything. 
Aft, prep. j on. 
An, our. 
Áft-o, high. 
Á]ix)ui3, v. reg., raise. 

bÁt», white. 

bAfifi, m., top. 

beAj, small. 

beAjÁn, m., a few. 

béAl, the mouth. 

be An, f., a woman. 

beAninpgne, feminine gender. 

be Ant a, m., the English language. 

beijtr, f., two persons. 

berc, f., a vest. 

bptjit, v. neg. and interrog. of ua. 

bin re, m., a bench ; a desk. 

btúifte, m., a bit ; a piece. 

boi*oéAl, m., a bottle. 

bónA, m., a shirt-collar. 

bófvo, m. } a table. 

bor^A, m., a box. 



bju'rxe, m., breeches. 

bnó^, f., a shoe. 

buACAitt, m., a boy. 

buAlAX), v. noun of buAit, strike. 

buix>e, yellow. 

bun, m., lower part ; foundation. 

bu|t, your (pi.). 

cÁ, interrog., where ? (eclipses verb) 

cat), what. 

CA"oé, masc. interrag. pronoun. 

ca-oí, fern, interrog. pronoun. 

caiIc, f., chalk. 

CAitin, m., a girl (takes feminine 

pronoun). 
caoL, fine ; slender. 
ca]u\dac, m., a cravat. 
cÁncA, m., a card. 
cAfóg, f., a coat ; a cassock. 
CAÚA01J1, f., a chair. 
ceAtin, m., a head, 
ceire, f., a question. 
cia, interrog., who ? 
ciA acu, which; whether. 
ciAnruijt, in., a handkerchief. 
cipin, m., a little stick ; a match 
ctÁft, m., a board. 
ctÁn -oub, a blackboard, 
clé'ú, left (hand"). 
cIóca, m., a cloak. 
cluAf, f., the ear. 
com, equally. com fA"OA te, as 

long as. 
coniAineAm, v. noun of coTUAifum, 

coimt. 
coriiAijurii, v. reg., count, 
cop, f., a foot. 
cjiocAX), v. noun of c\\ot, hang. 



66 



cuiT), f., a part; a share. 

cuiji, v. reg., put. 

curiiAnz;, narrow. 

cun {from cum, "oocum), to; towards. 

(noun following is in gen. case), 
cup, v. noun o/cuip, put. 

-oe,prep., of; off. 

t>e ; -oi ; -oioX), prep, pronouns, of it; 

of them 
•oeA|i5, red. 
■oeAp, right (hand). 
•diait), i rcoiAix), after. 
•do, thy ; your, 
•oopup, in., a door, 
•oub, black. 
*oub, m., ink. 

•out, v. noun of ze\]u$, go. 
•oún, v. reg., shut; close. 
•oúnAX), v. noun of -oun, shut ; 

close. 

é, pers. pron. masc, he ; him. 

eA-ó, pron. neuter, it. 

eAccfiA, m., narrative. 

eigifi, some, jiut> éijin, something. 

eite, other. 

FA-o a, long. 

f Alt a, m., a wall. 

f An, v. reg., stay. 

y Ati Aril auic, v. noun of y An, stay. 

pé, |irep , under. 

f eA|i, m., a man. 

j? eApmp^ne, masculine gender. 

féi-oiji, possible. 

■péin, emphatic, self; own. 

■pi^uii-ji, f., digit ; figure. 

■pocAt, m., a word. 

-pottArii, empty. 

■po}iAinm, f., a pronoun. 

•p|teA5Ai|i, v. reg., answer. 

■pfteA5jiAT), m., an answer. 

f umneo^, f., a window. 

5Á, from A5 and poss. adj. a, his ; 

her ; its. 
5AÓ, each ; every. 



gAe-óitj ; gAe-ótumn, £, the Gaelic 
language. 

5Ai|iix), short. 

SemeAirinAc, genitive. 

StAf, grey. 

jtum, f., the knee. 

50, prep., to. 

50 x)ci, until (formed from prep. 50 
and verb C15 ; used as a preposi- 
tion, eclipsing with the article). 

50 pm, blue. 

5ttAiméA|t, m , grammar. 

5uaIa, f., the shoulder. 

gun a, nx, a gown. 

Iiaua, m., a hat. 

i, pers. pron. fern., she ; her. 

1 ; m ; mp, prep., in. 

ix>ip, prep., between 

mr^ne, m., gender. 

lotftAT), plural (number). 

lonAT), m , a place. 1 n-ionAT>, 

instead of. 
ip, verb, be; is. 
ip, conj. (for Ajur), and. 
ipé, verb and pronoun, masc. 
ipeAl, low. 
ipi, verb and pronoun, fern. 

LÁrii, f., a hand. 

LÁn, fulL 

te, prep., with (leip before article). 

LeAOAfi, m., a book. 

teACAn, broad. 

teigeAnn, m , an exercise. 

léip, 30 léip, all 

leip, with {before article) ; with him ; 

Avith it. 
tine, m., a line, 
tiom, leAu, prep, pron., as me; as 

thou, etc. (also with me; with 

thee). 
ticijt, f., a letter. 

mÁijtpctfi, m., a master ; a teacher. 
mÁií;ipcpeÁp, m., a mistress (takes 

adj. in masc. and pron. in fern.) 
mé, pers. pron., I ; me. 



07 



a glove. 



meAfi, f., a finger. 

'nvóó (for ioittoa), many. 

rmcin, m., a mitten 

mnAOi, prep, case of beAn, a woman. 

mo, my. 

mó, more (comp. o/ioiti-oa). 

mó. greater ; larger (comp. of mó\\). 

uióji, large. 

mónÁn, m , very much ; very many. 

muineÁt, m., the neck. 

ni, ne<!., not. 

tiit (/or ni bpuil), is not ; are not 

mi, or (also nó). 

ó, prep., from. 

oifteA-o, m , as much as ; as many as. 

ojiaio, on you (pi.). 

OfAinn, on us. 

o|im, on me. 

Of c, on thee. 

ojica, on tbem. 

or-gAil, r. reg.j open. 

op^Aitc, v. noun of orjAit, open. 

pÁipeAf , m., paper. 

peAnn, m., a pen. 

peAnn InAróe, m., a lead pencil. 

picciúi|i, m , a picture. 

pócA, m., a pocket. 

■jtÁx), m., a sentence. 

jiAtiioji, thick. 

f iajaiI, f., a ruler 

foim : foim, before. 

juiat), fox-coloured ; reddish. 

f u-o, m.j 



a thing. 



■peo, dan , tlris (written f o after a 

broad termination). 
reomjiA, m., a chamber; a room. 
fjÁcÁn, m., a mirror. 
f^iAn, f., a knife. 
f50it, f. , a school ; a class. 
f5jiíobA"ó, v. noun of r5t lloD,i, 5» 

write. 
'fi f for i p. 
pn, dem., that (written fOin after a 

broad termination). 
ft ac, f., a rod. 
fo, dejn., this (written peo after a 

slender termination), 
foin, vid. fin. 
f f ón, f., the nose. 
f coca, m , a stocking, 
fcol, m., a stool, 
fuvóe, sitting. 
fúit, f., an eye. 

cAbAif, v. irreg. t bring, caoaiji 

ifceAC, bring in. 
cÁim, pers. verb, I am 
CAnAix>e, thin. 
CA01, pers. verb, thou art (also 

CAOIf). 

CAf , v. irreg., come. 

ceAcc, v. noun of caji, come. 

céA^AfCA, StOUt. 

ceijtis, v. irreg., go. 

cój, i\ reg., take. 

cÓ5Ainc, p. noun of CÓ5, take. 

cjnúji, three persons. 

en, pers. pron., thou ; you (sing.). 



tiACA, singular (number). 



Ye, /or if é." 

peAfAih, standing. 



ú-o, dem., that; yonder. 
turnip, f., a number, 
uipci, on her. 
njtUdpi m., a floor. 



BOSTON COLLEGE 




3 9031 01167991 7 



180313 



Author 



Ao ^Ma o 1 e i giJiJi_J^aLbaiL_CQmi^M 



cuid J bv Fear 0\i r Finnhpii 



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